Annotated and Select Bibliography on Rural and Remote Education in Australia

Rural and Remote Education Inquiry

An Annotated and Select Bibliography on Rural and Remote Education in Australia

Foreword

This bibliography has been prepared by the Rural Education, Research and Development Centre, Townsville, Qld according to guidelines established by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission to assist in its inquiry into aspects of rural and remote school education provision in Australia. It attempts to include highly relevant, more recent, seminal, theoretical and policy-oriented Australian materials. Only items which directly relate to rural and remote education have been included. More broadly based materials have not been included. Only a few overseas references are included.

Materials published since 1990 have been included unless a work published prior to that date is still considered seminally important and has had a substantial impact on the development of policy and research in rural and remote education. It was tempting to include works such as Turney, Sinclair and Cairns' book Isolated schools: Teaching, learning and transition to work (1980), because it was one of the first significant, systematic analyses by Australian educators of the needs of children in rural and remote schools. In the end, it was decided to omit it because of its age. For similar reasons Sher's Rural education in urbanised nations (1981) was also omitted.

The construction of a select bibliography of this type is fraught with difficulties. It was particularly difficult to keep the bibliography to a manageable size including as it does research, theoretical and policy-oriented materials, as requested by the Commission. Further, what appears as "seminal" to one person will not appear so to another and changing social, cultural, economic and political imperatives alter perceptions of what publications are important.

To validate the selection of items, the draft bibliography was sent for evaluation and review to some fourteen scholars and practitioners in rural education who have a special interest in the various areas. Their comments and suggestions have been incorporated into the final bibliography.

The bibliography is presented under the following headings:

  • Rural and remote education in general
  • Education for children with disabilities
  • Teacher training, in-service and retention
  • Income support and funding
  • Distance education and technology
  • Indigenous education
  • Education for non-English speaking background children

It proved difficult sometimes knowing where to locate particular publications because their subject matter crossed headings.

Under each heading bibliographic references with short annotations are provided. These publications are further listed by type of publication; for example, monographs, journal articles, government reports, conference papers, and book chapters. Within each of these sections, items are listed by date from most recent to least recent.

Rural and remote education in general

Government reports

Commonwealth
Australia. Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs. (1998). Differential access to higher education: The measurement of socioeconomic status, rurality and isolation. (Chairperson Professor John Western). Canberra: Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs.
The report examines and evaluates suitable and practicable alternative methods of identifying students from low socioeconomic, rural and isolated groups.

Australia. Department of Primary Industries and Energy. (1998). The rural book: Part of the Countrylink program (8th ed.). Canberra: Department of Primary Industries and Energy.
The purpose of this book is to provide overviews and contact details for the Commonwealth departments and programs, including those for education.

Robinson, L. & Ainley, J. (1995) The availability of baseline data on equity in Australian schools. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET).

Australia. Department of Employment, Education and Training. (1994). Curriculum provision in rural secondary schools: A report to the Country Areas Program, Schools and Curriculum Division, Department of Employment, Education and Training (Draft for comment). Camberwell, Victoria: ACER.
Includes examples of how information collected through the study can be used to improve decision making on curriculum provision at school, regional and system levels.

Australia. Department of Primary Industries and Energy. Department of Human Services and Health. (1994). Rural, remote and metropolitan areas classification 1991. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This classification was developed in response to the growing need for knowledge and information about issues of concern to rural and remote Australia.

Australia. Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET). Schools and Curriculum Division. Targeted Programs Branch. (1993). National strategy for equity in schooling: Paper for consultation: draft. Canberra: Australia Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET).
This report was developed by an Australian Education Council Schools Working Party and deals with a range of policy matters including rural students and matters affecting rural education.

Australia. National Board of Employment, Education and Training. (1991). Toward a national education and training strategy for rural Australians. Canberra, Australian Government Publishing Service.
The report highlights inequalities in the participation rates of non-metropolitan people in education and training when compared to their metropolitan counterparts. The report proposes the development of a national education and training strategy for rural Australians arguing for co-operation between Commonwealth and State/Territory governments and their active commitment to co-ordinating their activities. The analysis reveals that outback children are seriously disadvantaged.

Griffin, M. and Batten, M. (1991). Equity in schools: an independent perspective: A study of equity policies, programs and practices in nongovernment, nonsystemic schools. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This project was funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training. The study was conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research.

Australia. Commonwealth Schools Commission. Curriculum Development Centre. (1988). Schooling in rural Australia. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.
A major report which is built upon input from various interest groups and from commissioned reports. It deals with such issues as Commonwealth and State support for rural schooling, access to schooling, teachers and rural schooling and rural schooling and the use of technology. Its recommendations are wide-ranging including such matters as living away from home accommodation support scheme, encouragement for the development of and financial support for off-campus teacher education programs, and in-service education.

State
Queensland. Dept of Education. (1994). Social justice strategy 1994-1998: Issues and strategies: Draft. Book 2. Brisbane: Dept of Education.
Deals with a range of policy matters including access to education in rural areas as well as a range of social justice issues.

Western Australia. Ministerial Review of Schooling in Rural Western Australia. (1994). Schooling in rural Western Australia. (Chair: D Tomlinson). Perth: Western Australia Education Department.
This report questions the role of "rurality" in explaining the performance of rural/remote students and schools indicating that factors such as socioeconomic status are more powerful.

Queensland. Department of Education. (1993). Rurality and participation in schooling: A project funded under the Country Areas Program (National Element) of the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training and undertaken for the Australian Council by the Department of Education, Queensland. Canberra: Australian Education Council.
Major outcomes of this investigation carried out by K Rousseau are a working definition to describe rural locations and suggested methods for the classification of urban and rural locations.

Monographs

Mackenzie, P., Harrold, R. & Sturman, A. (1996). Curriculum provision in rural secondary schools. (ACER Research Monograph No. 48). Melbourne: ACER.
This report is intended to assist school and system decision makers by improving the information base on rural secondary schools.

Stern, C.D. (Ed.) (1994). The condition of education in rural schools. Washington, DC: US Department of Education.
An overview of the condition of education in rural America. It was prepared to assist policy makers and practitioners by providing concise and current information on rural education in America.

Higgins, A. (1993). Rural difference: A challenge for beginning teachers. Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University. Based on the author's lecture notes, this is an excellent introduction to living and teaching in rural areas covering such matters as characteristics of isolated learners and isolated teachers, curriculum in rural schools and rural schooling and technology.

Conference papers

Boylan, C., Nor,S., & Rahman,A. A. (1996). Rural education provision: Insights from Malaysia and Australia. Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Educational Research Association, Singapore and Australian Association for Research in Education, 25-29 November 1996, Singapore Polytechnic. Conference theme: Education research: building new partnerships.
An analysis of government policies on educational provision in New South Wales and Malaysia for rural children. The impact of programs on school organisation, curriculum delivery and teacher training are examined. Issues of educational disadvantage and sustainability of programs are examined as a basis for recommending actions that can improve the quality of education for rural students.

McSwan, D. & McShane, M. (Eds.). (1994). An international conference on issues affecting rural communities. Proceedings of the conference held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre at Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 10-15 July 1994. Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
This important international conference brought together a large gathering of rural scholars and professionals. The proceedings contain a large number of papers covering policy, practice and pedagogy in areas such as education, health and community and economic development.

Walton, J. (1991, November) Interpretations of rurality and their implications. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education annual conference, Surfers Paradise 26-30 November 1991. Conference theme: Practitioners, researchers and policy makers: changing coalitions?
This paper attempts to explore that mosaic of symbols and meanings that often form part of the Australian understanding of rurality. It considers the impact of this mosaic on people's perceptions, and suggests that possible influence of these perceptions on school curricula, retention rates, gender issues, employment opportunities and teacher attitudes in rural areas.

Clark, S. (1990). Rural education research: a "state of the art" review. Keynote paper to "Think Tank" on research into rural education held at Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14 1990. Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
This paper attempts to summarise research findings relating to rural education following a literature survey. Topics covered include schooling, technology and educational delivery.

Journal articles

D'Plesse, P. (1992). Redefining remoteness in the post industrial society. Education in Rural Australia, 2 (1), 1-6.
The article suggests a definition for the concept of remoteness and explores how it may alter within the context of the emerging information based society.

Sher, J. P. and Sher, K. R. (1994) Beyond the conventional wisdom: Rural development as if Australia's rural people and communities really mattered. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 10 (1), 2-43.
An outline of what rural development could encompass as Australia enters the 21st century. It argues that Australia has no coherent and explicit national rural development policy and advocates a policy which places primary emphasis on the actual well-being of rural peoplle and communities.

Education for children with disabilities

Government reports

State
Northern Territory Board of Studies. (1994) Special education policy: Provision for students with disabilities in Northern Territory schools. Darwin: Northern Territory. Dept of Education
Although special education policies have been published by other state education departments, this report spotlights a range of special education policy issues including special education needs in rural areas.

Read, N. (1988). Service delivery for children with special needs who live in isolated areas: a survey. Hobart: Tasmania Education Department.
A useful government policy report on service delivery for children with special needs in isolated Tasmania.

Monographs

Rural Education Research and Development Centre. (1999). A whole Community approach to otitis media: Reducing its incidence and effects. Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
An interim report after the first year of a project to assist the Queensland Health Promotion Council in its developmental work on otitis media (OM). The project aims to reduce the incidence of effects of OM in three communities, to improve learning outcomes of children who are suffering or who have suffered OM, and embed appropriate practices in local communities.

Higgins, A.H. (1997). Addressing the health and education consequences of Otitis Media among young rural school-aged children. Townsville: Australian Rural Education Research Association (Inc.).
An important report which addresses several issues including the extent of the link between the incidence of otitis media and trachoma and learning difficulties among remote rural children up to ten years old, and to provide learning materials for the children and communities in which the conditions occur.

Brentnall, B. & Dunlop, M. (1985). Distance and disability: A survey of children with disabilities in isolated areas of Australia. Sydney: United Church National Mission Frontier Services.
This survey was done following an appeal for assistance arising from the annual conference of the Isolated Children's Parents Association in 1981. It seeks to establish the prevalence of children with disabilities in isolated areas of Australia.

Theses

Crease, I. D. (1991). Supporting disabled students in rural Queensland: An exploratory study (Thesis). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland.
This thesis addresses the difficulties that are related to providing education for disabled students in rural locations in Queensland. It explores the challenge that disabled students may place on teaching principals and the needs that are created on account of the interrelatedness of isolation, disability and integration. The conclusions reached from the interviews conducted and the surveys that were developed have implications for policy guidelines that address remote and rural education in general, the way preservice teacher preparation courses are constructed, and how professional support services are delivered in rural areas where integration is an accepted and natural practice.

Conference papers

Pagliano, P. (1998). Special education, rurality and research. In D. McSwan (Ed.), An international symposium on the Doctor of Philosophy for candidates and supervisors: A focus on rural issues, 30 June-2 July 1997 (pp. 45-49). Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University of North Queensland.
Examines a number of research issues as they relate to special education and rurality, using illustrations from the research of the author and that of his research students.

Bandy, H. E. & Boyer, W. A. R. (1994). The impact of special needs students on teachers in the rural areas of British Columbia. In D. McSwan and M. McShane (Eds.), An international conference on issues affecting rural communities: Proceedings of the conference held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre at Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville Queensland Australia, 10-15 July 1994 (pp. 232-241). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland. Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This study found that the majority of rural teachers in British Columbia perceived that both their inservice and preservice education had inadequately prepared them for the realities of inclusion. The teachers cited a high percentage of children with special needs in their classrooms, a wide range of disabilities, a grave concern regarding the lack of support services, and a perceived inability to provide optimal educational programs. Repeatedly the teachers reported the implementation of a variety of individualised learning experiences.

Johanssen, P. (1994). Educational services for students with severe/multiple disabilities in rural Western Australian schools. Partnerships in teaching and learning: Australian Association of Special Education 18th National Conference, 30th September-3rd October 1994: papers and presentations. [Buranda Qld]: Australian Association of Special Education (AASE)
Western Australia has followed the path of devolution of centrally organised services to schools, as have other States. However, because of the low incidence of students with severe and multiple disabilities and the extreme remoteness of many of their locations, a centrally funded and organised service provides support to country schools where these students are enrolled. This service assists the schools in the implementation of the Education Department's policy and the Task Force recommendations to provide appropriate educational programs for such students.

Cross, L. & Burrell, J. (1991). What about me: ever thought about including rural Australians who also may have an intellectual disability? What Does Social Justice Mean for Education in Rural Australia? Sixth National Conference Proceedings, July, 1990, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
Discusses possible scenarios to illustrate some of the problems and options for inclusion for rural Australians with disabilities.

O'Neill, C. & Linfoot, K. (1989). Issues concerning the integration of students with special needs. In `Research and future development of education in Australia': unpublished papers presented at the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education held at the University of Adelaide 28 Nov - 2 Dec 1989, 13 pages. Adelaide:
Nongovernment schools have also begun to offer enrolment to students with disabilities in a more systematic way than hitherto. Data are presented on the attitudes of teachers and principals in nongovernment schools in western NSW towards the enrolment of students with disabilities. The paper examines issues relating to resources needed to support these enrolments and implications for curriculum adaptions.

Journal articles

Wolstenholme, R. (1996). Caring for Aboriginal people with disabilities. Australian Disability Review, 3, 3-14.
Examines emerging trends and demographic patterns of the Aboriginal communities involved within a framework of cultural vitality theory.

Westling, D. L. & Whitten, T. M. (1996). Rural special education teachers' plans to continue or leave their teaching positions. Exceptional Children, 62, 319-335.
Survey of 158 rural special education teachers to determine teachers' plans for remaining in or leaving their current positions. Data suggested that administrative support and job requirements played important roles in teachers' five-year plans.

Winn, S. (1995). Hearing impairment services itinerant teaching service in South Australia. Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 1 (1), 22-27.
The itinerant teaching is similar to that used in other states. The paper discusses what was, what is, and a projection of how the service could operate in the future, noting the difficulty of service provision in the country region where access to allied services is difficult.

Yonowitz, L., Yonowitz, A., Nienhuys, T. & Boswell, J. (1995). MLD evidence of auditory pprocessing factors as a possible barrier to literacy for Australian Aboriginal children. Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 1 (1), 34-42.
Findings indicated that Aboriginal children may be at a disadvantage for listening to speech, particularly English, in noisy settings. The discussion addresses intervention issues.

Douglan, M. (1989). Educating blind and visually impaired children in Western Australia. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 51-55.
Discusses the history of education of the blind and visually impaired people in the State, and special problems of itinerant teachers who may travel hundreds of miles to see one student.

Hayes, A. & Livingstone, S. (1986). Mainstreaming in rural communities: An analysis of case studies in Queensland schools. The Exceptional Child, 3 (3), 35-48. Mainstreaming in rural schools is often a matter of necessity. Key issues in rural mainstreaming are offered as a basis of future research.

Shaddock, A. J. & Batchler, M.W. (1986). An analysis of the use of telconferencing to support a rural early intervention program. The Exceptional Children. 37 (3), 215-219.
Discusses functions of teleconferences in an early intervention program.

Teacher training, in-service and retention

Book chapters

Boylan, C. (1997). A rural perspective on professional development. In R. J. King, D. M. Hill and J A Retallick (Eds.). Exploring professional development in education, pp.123-144. Wentworth Falls NSW: Social Science Press.
This chapter sets out to establish that for rural teachers, participation in professional development programs that can be accessed by a variety of delivery modes, produce lasting outcomes that enhance rural teacher retention. Rural teachers cite intellectual isolation as their most pressing professional concern.

Marland, P., Gibson, I., Gibson, K., King, S., Lester, N. & Young, P. (1994). Multgrade teaching: An exploratory study. In P. Marland and K. Smith (Eds.) Knowledge and competencies for beginning teaching: A report of a policy development initiative, pp.167-201. Toowong, Qld: Queensland Board of Teacher Registration.
Although not specifically targeted at rural education, this discussion is of particular interest because of the prevalence of multi-grade classrooms in rural schools. The aim of the project is to provide an adequate basis for strategic planning by teacher education institutions in respect of preparing teachers for effective multigrade teaching.

Conference papers

Grant, M. (1996). Promoting rural Aboriginal off-campus study using information technology and other innovative strategies. Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Educational Research Association, Singapore and Australian Association for Research in Education, 25-29 November 1996, Singapore Polytechnic. Conference theme: Education research: building new partnerships.
Indigenous students from rural New South Wales (Australia) must cope with isolation and distance from the University as they undertake Diploma in Aboriginal Education/ Bachelor of Teaching studies in a part-time mixed-mode course. Once immersed in their communities following residential schools, they struggled to manage their studies along with work, family, and community responsibilities. Following a review of the program in 1995 a number of initiatives using information technology were taken.

Gibson,I. W. & King, S. (1995). Pre-service preparation for teaching in small rural communities. In D. Riley (Ed.). Lifelong learning in rural areas: between a rock and a hard place: proceedings of the 11th National Conference (pp. 31-41). Toowoomba: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
This paper reports a case study in teacher education, describing innovative teaching approaches to rural teacher preparation. It looks at course work, curriculum delivery, teaching practice, the use of information and communication technology, professional development, teacher support, school management, school community relationships, and political contexts.

Gibson, I. W. (1993). Policy, practice and need in the professional preparation of teachers for rural teaching: an Australian perspective. Unpublished paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), Fremantle 22-25 November 1993. Conference theme: Educational research: making a difference.
This paper, based on research which explores the perceptions of a sample of teachers newly appointed to isolated rural schools during the course of one academic year in the western regions of Queensland, analyses current policy and practice relating to the selection of teachers for rural areas of Australia and contrasts these to the perceptions of rural teachers regarding needed additions to preservice preparation.

Boylan, C., Sinclair, R., Smith, A., Squires, D., Edwards, J., Jacob, A., O'Malley, D. & Nolan, B (1993). Retaining teachers in rural schools. In C Boylan and M Alston (Eds.) Rural education issues: an Australian perspective (pp. 81-89). (Key papers n.3). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University - Riverina. Centre for Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
The paper addresses issues such as teacher satisfaction with teaching and their present situation; levels of expressed commitments to teaching; some teacher perceptions of their communities' attitudes to education and how their communities regard them; and teachers' perceptions of life in rural environments.

Journal articles

Yarrow, A., Ballantyne, R., Hansford, B., Herchell, P. & Millwater, J. (1999). Teaching in rural and remote schools: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education, 15, 1-13.
An excellent summary of recent research into the preparation and support for teachers working in rural and remote schools. Although reviewed from an Australian perspective, it evaluates research from throughout the world.

Boylan, C. & McSwan, D. (1998). Long-staying rural teachers: Who are they? Australian Journal of Education, 42 (1), 49-65.
This report analyses available studies and, among other things, reveals much variation in the definition of `long-staying'. A survey was administered which sought information on professional pre- and inservice education, satisfaction, commitment and community. There emerges a profile of a professionally satisfied, community integrated family oriented teacher who enjoyed the rural lifestyle and environment. The results carry strong messages for teacher education and teacher selection processes.

Dunshea, G. (1998). Beginning principals and the issue of gender in rural and regional areas. Asia Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 26 (3), .203- 215.
This paper reports qualitative data arising from an interview study of a small group of beginning women principals in rural and regional areas of New South Wales, Australia. The data demonstrate not only that there are distinctive issues for female school leaders, but that the conservative rural and regional context in which they work probably intensifies these issues. The paper concludes with a recommendation for further research examining the experiences of female beginning principals in a variety of social and cultural locations.

Partington, G. (1997). Practice teaching in remote Aboriginal communities: The need for adaptation to the social and cultural context. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,.22 (1), 31-39.
As part of the teacher education program at Edith Cowan University, a small group of student teachers experience teaching practice in remote Aboriginal communities. In this paper, student teacher perceptions of their experiences on such a practice are presented to illustrate the influence of the practice on their views about teaching Aboriginal children.

Boylan, C. (1996). Practice teaching in a distance education centre: Expanding opportunities for teacher education students. Education in Rural Australia, 6 (1), 37-41.
A report describing the success of a program, for a small group of pre service students who completed a practice teaching experience in a distance education centre.

Smith, R. and Macindoe, M. (1991). Education and the interactive multimedia technologies: The Remote Area Teacher Education Project (RATEP). Unicorn, 17 (3), 139-145.
This paper outlines the Remote Area Teacher Education Project (RATEP), the technologies involved, the principles of courseware production and what has been learnt in the process of courseware development at James Cook University. RATEP is unique in that the delivery of courses is to students in remote locations using interactive multimedia technology and the project has involved the cooperation of four major educational institutions in Queensland: James Cook University of North Queensland; Queensland University of Technology; Cairns College of TAFE; and the Queensland Education Department. The importance of RATEP and community involvement are discussed and examples of student tracking and authoring techniques are provided.

Income support and funding

Government reports

Australia. Dept of Employment Education and Training (DEET) Targeted Programs Branch. (1994) The National Equity Program for Schools: improving the ways we allocate equity funds. Canberra: Dept of Employment Education and Training (DEET).
The Program is based on the National Strategy for Equity in Schools (1993).

Cumming, J. (1992). Resourceful communities: integrating education, training and work for young people in rural Australia. Belconnen, ACT, Australian Curriculum Studies Association (ACSA).
The result of a twelve month project (Educational Resources for Enterprising Communities in Rural Australia project) conducted by ACSA in 1991-92 and jointly funded by the Commonwealth Departments of Employment, Education and Training and Primary Industries and Energy. The book is about community-based partnerships between education, business, government and non-government interest groups in education, business and non-government interest groups in rural Australia.

Monographs

Bendigo College of Advanced Education. (1990). AUSTUDY rural inequities. Bendigo: Bendigo College of Advanced Education.
A joint project of the Country Education Project, the Office of Rural Affairs and the Victorian Country Youth Affairs Network. The purpose of the project was to identify the effect of AUSTUDY on rural people and to develop strategies to bring about changes to the scheme where it was found that inequities existed. Five areas are addressed in the report: access to reliable and accurate information about AUSTUDY in rural areas; the adequacy of the living away from home allowance; the impact of AUSTUDY on retention rates in secondary schools; the assets test and the income tests; and the transition from dependence to independence for young people and assumptions made by AUSTUDY about that transition.

Theses

Griffith, D. A. (1996). Development of a spatial model to quantify access to services in rural and remote areas of Australia (Thesis). Casuarina, NT: Northern Territory University.
This study describes a model, the Griffith Service Access Frame, which quantifies the relative access disadvantage of rural and remote population centres in Australia. The study limits the application of the model to educational services to enable a detailed comparative analysis to be undertaken using the Griffith Service Access Frame and the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training's Country Areas General Component formula. The study provides evidence of the Griffith Service Access Frame's face validity by providing evidence of a high correlation between the perceptions of the inhabitants of seventeen education regions, through their ranking of schools in the Northern Territory, Tasmania and Queensland and their rankings as generated by the Griffith Service Access Frame.

Clark, S. L. (1992). Rural education or education in rural areas: an exploratory study in Queensland (Thesis). Townsville, Qld, James Cook University of North Queensland.
This thesis explores the type of education desired by teachers and parents in rural and remote areas of Queensland. Teachers and parents of school eligible for Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) funding within the catchment areas of Longreach and Charters Towers Schools of Distance Education were surveyed by questionnaire. Suggestions for future policy have been made in authenticating the curriculum for rural and remote students, providing rural specific subjects in teacher education courses, inducting teachers through community based programs and in empowering students to make informed choices regarding the use of telecommunications in overcoming the tyranny of distance.

Conference papers

Witham, M. (1998). A rationale for allocating resources to country schools. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Rural education Research association Adelaide Seminar, University of South Australia City East Campus 4 December 1998.
Examines the current basis for allocating resources to government schools in South Australia. The analysis shows that there is not currently a policy of providing additional resources on the basis of rurality or geographic isolation.

Griffith, D. (1998). "Boiling the Frog": The dangers of linking efficiency targets, economic rationalism, national educational benchmarks to resource allocation and the implications to systems with significant numbers of disadvantaged students. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Rural education Research association Adelaide Seminar, University of South Australia City East Campus 4 December 1998.
The paper discusses the role of the Commonwealth in establishing educational priorities, benchmarks for educational outcomes and target groups. The case for the development and adoption of objective definitions and classification of students is argued to enable improved educational outcomes to be achieved for all Australians.

Sheed, J. and Lloyd,D. (1993). AUSTUDY rural inequities. In C Boylan and M Alston (Eds.) Rural education issues: an Australian perspective (pp. 81-89). (Key papers n.3). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University - Riverina. Centre for Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
This paper provides a summary of a project which identified the effect of AUSTUDY on rural people and which aimed to develop strategies to bring about changes to the scheme where it was found inequities existed.

Cooper, R. S. (1992). Tasmanian school resource allocation formulas. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE)/New Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE) Joint Conference, Deakin University Geelong 22-26 November 1992. Conference theme: Educational research: discipline and diversity.
The paper summarises the development of formulas used to distribute staffing and financial resources to Tasmanian schools and colleges in 1992. The concept of a needs weighted per capita allocation was introduced to provide an equitable basis for the distribution of resources to schools.

Boylan,C. (Ed). (1991). What does social justice mean for education in rural Australia?: Sixth National Conference proceedings, July 1990, Albury NSW. Wagga Wagga, NSW: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia.
The four major issues discussed at the conference centred around equity, participation, access and rights.

Larocque, L. (1990). National examination of the Country Areas Program. In M. McShane and J. Walton (Eds.) "Think Tank" on research into rural education: proceedings of the conference held by the Rural Education, Research and Developemnt Centre at the Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14, 1990 (pp. 115-123). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland: Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This paper examines the Country Areas Program and looks at the National Board of Employment, Education and Training's involvement in rural education issues, rural education and training and Government reports, student retention, financial recommendations and funding, and other related areas.

Distance education and technology

Government reports

Gray, A (1994). Expanding opportunities for learning: report for the National Country Area Program on alternate delivery systems. Brisbane: Queensland Dept of Education. Open Access Support Centre.
This report provides an overview of 18 delivery technologies which are of relevance to rural schools and discusses their advantages and disadvantages when used in educational contexts. It also examines issues relating to the selection, establishment and management of the communications and information technologies likely to be employed in rural schools.

Monographs

Calzoni, F. (1991). The Australian School of the Air: a conceptual analysis of its origins, history and recent developments, with particular reference to distance education in Western Australia 1955-1990. Perth: Murdoch University.
This study is the first systematic attempt to analyse the Australian School of the Air as a progressive development in modern education. The study analyses the origins and development of these unique schools throughout Australia, but with particular reference to their place in distance education in Western Australia from 1959 to 1990. Their stress on fully functioning primary education, individualised teaching and community involvement helped rather than hindered their pervasive influence, as wider spheres of distance education came to embrace much of their methodology.

Conference reports

Cuskelly, E., Danaher,P. & Purnell, K. (1997). Just which technology do distance students really want? results of focus group research. In J Osborne, D Roberts and J Walker (Eds.) Open, flexible and distance learning: education and training in the 21st century: selected papers from the 13th Biennial Forum of the Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia (ODLAA) (in association with the Australian Association of Distance Education Schools), University of Tasmania, Launceston, 29 September - 3 October 1997 (pp. 88-93). Launceston: University of Tasmania.
Students in guided group discussion were generally more comfortable with technology at the level of telephone, audio and video tapes, than with the Internet and the latest remote-conferencing facilities.

Webster, B.J. and Young, D. J. (1997) Equality of opportunity in rural schools: an Australian study. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE), 30 November - 4 December 1997.
The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was conducted in Australia in 1994 among 13-year-old students in 161 schools. This study involved the use of a multilevel model to examine the effect of school resources on student achievement in mathematics and science. Resources examined included the use of computers, technology and other physical resources provided by the school for academic learning.

Boylan, C. (1996). Practice teaching in a distance education centre: Expanding opportunities for teacher education students. Education in Rural Australia, 6 (1).
A report describing the success of a program, for a small group of pre service students who completed a practice teaching experience in a distance education centre.

Oliver, R. & Reeves, T. (1994). An investigation of the use of telecommunications to increase equity and access to education in Rural schools in Western Australia. In educational multimedia and hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA 94: World conference on educational multimedia and hypermedia. Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994.
Reports on PCAP project in WA and discusses real-time electronic communications to enhance the equity and access to schooling for students in rural schools.
Stevens, K. & Mason, D. (1994). The reduced significance of geographic isolation for rural education: some implications for small communities in New Zealand, Australia and Canada. In D. Riley (Ed.) The rural community and its school: in partnership for the future (Proceedings of the 10th National Conference held in Fremantle, Western Australia, 12-15 October 1994) (pp. 145-151). Toowoomba: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
The paper considers the significance of geographic isolation and the implications of introducing new information and communication technologies for small communities in New Zealand, Australia and Canada.

Shewring, B. (1993). Delivery of secondary education to remote Aboriginal communities using communication technologies. In The emerging culture of educational administration: putting the heat on administrators: collected papers: Australian Council for Educational Administration National Conference, Darwin Northern Territory, 5-8 July 1992 (Volume 4: Education and society - social issues). Darwin: Northern Territory Council for Educational Administration.
This paper focuses on the question of, and the problems associated with the development, management and administration of Junior Secondary Education for remote Aboriginal students using technology. This is examined using one of the proposed Aboriginal Education Projects for the 1993/95 triennium.

Squires, D., Sinclair, R. & Bell, R. (1991). Schools, technology and community development. In C. Boylan (Ed.) Rural education and local development: proceedings of the Seventh Annual National Conference, July 1991, Hawkesbury Campus, University of Western Sydney (pp. 133-139). [Wagga Wagga NSW]: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
As part of its Rural Education Plan, the New South Wales Government in 1990 conducted a trial in a small number of its rural central schools whereby schools that previously could offer courses only to Year 10 were able, by use of modern communications technologies and the concept of clustering, to extend to offering the full Higher School Certificate range of courses to Years 11 and 12. This paper explores some of the interesting but probably unforeseen consequences of a program to increase equity and participation in education in the bush.

Journal articles

McLoughlin,C. (1998). The student voice: perceptions of autonomy and collaboration in learning with technology. Australian Educational Computing, 13 (2), 28-33.
This paper reports on the insights and responses of a group of students who accessed the gifted and talented program via telematics during 1996-1997, using audiographic conferencing.

Indigenous education

Government reports

Commonwealth
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1996). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Survey 1994: regional statistics. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Includes statistics from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing and the 1992 ATSIC Housing and Community Infrastructure Needs Survey.

Australia. Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). (1996). Desert schools: an investigation of English language and literacy among young Aboriginal people in seven communities. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA).
A three-volume report, including a literature review (Volume 3). This National Children's Literacy Project was funded by the Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs under the 1993/4 Children's Literacy National Projects and undertaken by the NLLIA South Australian Teaching and Curriculum Centre, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. Principal researchers: J. Barnett, G. Kemelfield and P. Muhlhausler.

Australia. Department of Emplyment, Education and Training. (1994). National review of education for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: Final report. (Chair: M Yunupingi). Canberra: Department of Emplyment, Education and Training.
A seminally important report dealing with a range of policy issues affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education. Areas covered include rural education, program evaluation, community involvement and financial support.

Coles, P. (1994). Educational and vocational training needs of the Aboriginal labour market in rural and remote areas of the Northern Territory. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Survey of employment aspirations and opportunities in remote areas of Northern Territory undertaken by Batchelor College.

Australia. Department of Employment, Education and Training. (1992). Aboriginal employment, education and training. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Outlines federal government education policy and programs.

State
McCue, G. (1993). Results of the 1992 Primary Assessment Program in non-urban schools. (Research and evaluation report n.1 1993, Northern Territory. Curriculum and Assessment Branch). Darwin: Department of Education.
Prepared for the Northern Territory Board of Studies this publication reports on academic achievement in rural schools in the Territory.

Scott, T. (1993). Issues in education in remote rural Australia: Western Australia Ministerial Review of Schooling in Rural Western Australia. Perth: Western Australia. Education Dept.
This review sought: to determine the extent to which educational opportunities and outcomes for rural students differed from those of their metropolitan peers; to identify factors which might impact upon rural students' access to schooling; and to recommend future strategic directions for schooling in rural Western Australia.

Monographs

Rural Education Research and Development Centre. (1999). A whole Community approach to otitis media: Reducing its incidence and effects. Townsville: Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
An interim report after the first year of a project to assist the Queensland Health Promotion Council in its developmental work on otitis media (OM). The project aims to reduce the incidence of effects of OM in three communities, to improve learning outcomes of children who are suffering or who have suffered OM, and embed appropriate practices in local communities.

Higgins, A.H. (1997). Addressing the health and education consequences of Otitis Media among young rural school-aged children. Townsville: Australian Rural Education Research Association (Inc.).
An important report which addresses several issues including the extent of the link between the incidence of otitis media and trachoma and learning difficulties among remote rural children up to ten years old, and to provide learning materials for the children and communities in which the conditions occur.

Symonds, R. and J. Glasby (1996). The Bushlink Project: a Katherine Region initiative.
Katherine High School is 320 km south of Darwin in the Northern Territory; it is the only high school in the region, which covers 408,000 square km. Within the region are 12 schools, 4 Community Education Centres and 4 urban primary schools, as well as a School of the Air. Bush schools are geographically isolated and synonymous with Aboriginal Education. This paper reports.

Retallick, J. Hill, D., et al. (1995). Workplace learning and the use of Curriculum Statements and Profiles by teachers of educationally disadvantaged students.
The purpose of the research was to trial the workplace model of professional development to facilitate use of Curriculum Statements and Profiles by teachers operating within the New South Wales syllabus guidelines with educationally disadvantaged students. The project focused on improving the learning outcomes of such students in the middle years of schooling (Years 5-8) with particular emphasis on those who were experiencing educational disadvantage relating to rural isolation, low socioeconomic status, or were Aborigines.

Willsher, M. (1995). Talking early childhood: a profile of services and programs for young Aboriginal children living on remote communities in the N.T. Batchelor, NT: Batchelor college.
A community-based Aboriginal early childhood project.

McGill, G. (1993). An Australian Aboriginal community's restraints on a school program: a case study. Casuarina NT: Northern Territory University.
The academic achievement of Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory of Australia is depressed. There is a body of research that suggests the causes of the depressed level are to be found in the cultural and linguistic differences between Aboriginal society and the major Australian society. This study complements that research by inquiring into the effectiveness of school as a source of those academic skills when the school is within a community of Aboriginal people.

Martin, R., S. Burrow, et al. (1993). 1992 ATU National survey of public schools: highlights report. South Melbourne, Vic :Australian Teachers Union (ATU).
The ninth national survey reports on: staffing and teaching conditions including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers and education workers, integration of students with disabilities, and distance education, open access and telematics.

Theses

Henry, M. E. (1987). Rural schooling: An ethnology. (Thesis). Armidale, NSW University of New England
Rural schooling has long been a focus of debate, but few attempts have been made to understand the social and cultural dynamics which separate, and to an extent exclude, rural students from educational and career success. Those students who attain high levels of academic competence do so in spite of, not because of rurality. This ethnology is an attempt to describe and interpret the process at work and the product that regenerates inequity.

Conference papers

Gilbert, R. (1995). Improving the outcomes of girls who benefit least from schooling: a special focus on rural and isolated girls. In Proceedings of the Promoting Gender Equity Conference, Canberra, 22-24 February 1995 (pp.237- 244). Canberra, ACT:. Department of Education and Training.
The construction of gender is the main theme of this paper. The author examines the significance of education in rural and isolated areas. The diversity of rural and isolated communities, their schools and the underlying inequalities in educational opportunity, outcomes are pointed to in the light of interaction with poverty, race, gender and class.

Cunnington, R. (1994). English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. In Best practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education: NLLIA celebrates the International Year of the World's Indigenous Peoples: proceedings of the conference held in Canberra on 17-18 November 1993, (pp. 54-56). Deakin ACT: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia.
State schools in far north Queensland's remote communities now have an English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. This program was developed to help students communicate well in standard Australian English without losing any facility in the language or dialect in which they were raised. The program is context based. Teachers are asked to devise life-like social contexts that will allow the students to become personally involved and encourage them to talk, read and write in English appropriate to the context and genre.

Brady, W. (1993). The education of Aboriginal women and girls in rural New South Wales. In R C Petersen and G W Rodwell (Eds.) Essays in the history of rural education in Australia and New Zealand (pp. 129-149). Darwin: William Michael Press.
The paper uses Aboriginal women's voices in describing the education of Aboriginal women and children in New South Wales and argues that historians of education must learn to utilise the voices of Aboriginal people in their research and writing.

Gosam, E. (1993). Rural curriculum from an Aboriginal perspective. In National curriculum implications for rural communities: papers and presentations from the Curriculum Conference, May 14, 15 & 16, 1993.
This short paper (2p.) comments on issues relating to Aboriginal education, curriculum development and rural education.

Herbert, J. (1990). Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: Rural concerns. In M McShane and J Walton (Eds.) 'Think tank' on research into rural education: proceedings of the conference held by the Rural Education Research and Development Centre at the Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14, 1990 (pp. 81-85). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland. Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This paper looks at educational research needs for rural education in Australia. In particular, it examines this subject from the perspective of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. It examines the needs of teachers, students, parents and the community.

Journal articles

Hatton, E. & O'Brien, L. (1997). Discipline policy in a working class rural primary school: Gender and ethnicity. Forum of Education, 52 (2), 70-79.
Many schools now maintain records of misdemeanours as perceived by teachers, which give a school-wide perspective. Although they are obviously selective; being open to gender, race, cultural and class biases, for example, they can provide useful insights into how a school is functioning, not least because it may reveal these very patterns of bias. This paper provides an analysis of disciplinary records in Term 3, 1993 in Meiki, a small, rural, working- class school in New South Wales.

Heitmeyer, D., P. Nilan, et al. (1996). The feasibility of radical change in Aboriginal education curricula and pedagogy. Curriculum Perspectives, 16 (1), 13-24.
The paper is concerned with pointing out the tension between two current policy trends: the drive for economic rationalism and calls to place the responsibility for5 aboriginal education completely in the hands of Aboriginal people.

Higgins, A. H. (1994). A background to rural education schooling in Australia. Journal of Research in Rural Education v.10 n.1 p.48-57 Spring 94
A brief history of rural education in Australia is introduced by providing a geographical description of the country and then by discussing the development of education in remote areas. The history of rural education in Queensland is examined to provide an illustration of developments elsewhere. The impact the Commonwealth government has had on rural education in Australia since the 1960s concludes the article.

Young, D. J. (1994). A comparison of student performance in Western Australian schools: rural and urban differences. Australian Educational Researcher, 21 (2), 87-105.
The purpose of the report is to compare the performance of students in Western Australian government schools in the metropolitan and country areas. Discusses the performance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children showed consistently higher performance. Concludes that it is not the location of the school which influences performance but whether the student is Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and whether the school is in a low socio-economic area.

Dench, P. (1991). Some computer strategies for achieving literacy in Australian languages: the Yintarri project. Aboriginal Child at School 19 (2), 3-15.
The Yinatarri Project is a program which uses touch- sensitive boards with microcomputers to assist in the development of literacy in both Wangkatja and English. There are three computer strategies using touch-sensitive boards: touch exploring, language-controlled software, and word processing. These are introduced, and then there is a discussion on the use of touch-exploring and word processing at Yintarri.

Pugh, D. (1992). Outstation schools - a case history. Aboriginal Child at School, 20 (4), 21-26.
Provision of educational services to outstation schools , with particular reference to the school community at Wurdeja, is the subject of this short paper.

Non-english speaking background children

Government reports

Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). (1996). Desert schools: an investigation of English language and literacy among young Aboriginal people in seven communities. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA).
A three-volume report, including a literature review (Volume 3). This National Children's Literacy Project was funded by the Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs under the 1993/4 Children's Literacy National Projects and undertaken by the NLLIA South Australian Teaching and Curriculum Centre, University of Adelaide and University of South Australia. Principal researchers: J. Barnett, G. Kemelfield and P. Muhlhausler.

Cairney, T., Ruge, J., Buchanan. J., Lowe, K. & Munsie, L. (1995). Developing partnerships: The home, school and community interface. Canberra Australia. Dept of Employment, Education and Training (DEET).
This report examines how the language and school literacy learning of students from specific target groups is influenced by support within their home and community environment as well as their parent, caregiver or tutor's involvement in their literacy learning. The study sought to consider initiatives situated within a variety of community contexts designed to support school literacy learning through home support. These contexts included schools, after school care, community libraries, homework centres, and a variety of community centres. This project was supported by a grant from the Department of Employment, Education and Training under the Australian Language and Literacy Policy.

Cairney, T. H., Lowe, K. & Sproats, E. (1994). Literacy in transition: an evaluation of literacy practices in upper primary and junior secondary schools. Kingswood, NSW: University of Western Sydney, Nepean
A three volume report Funded by the Department of Employment, Education and Training as part of the Children's Literacy National Projects 1993-1994 under the Australian Language and Literacy Policy.

Martin. L. M. !994). Equity and general performance indicators in higher education. Volume 1, Equity indicators. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Place of Publication: Canberra: Department of Employment, Education and Training.
This paper seeks to define and evaluate a set of equity indicators. In relation to rural and isolated students it proposed that further work be done on alternative classification of geographic disadvantage developed by Griffith.

Australia. Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET). Schools and Curriculum Division. Targeted Programs Branch. (1993). National strategy for equity in schooling: Paper for consultations: Draft. Canberra: Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET).
This report was developed by an Australian Education Council Schools Working Party and deals with a range of policy matters including rural students and matters affecting rural education.

Griffin, M. & Batten, M. (1991). Equity in schools: an independent perspective: A study of equity policies, programs and practices in nongovernment, nonsystemic schools. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This project was funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training. The study was conducted by the Australian Council for Educational Research.

Australia. Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET). (1990). A fair chance for all. Canberra: Department of Employment Education and Training (DEET).
A policy statement which describes objectives, goals and startegies for people from socio-economically disadvantaged background, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, women. People from non-English speaking backgrounds, people with disabilities and people from rural and isolated areas.

Monographs

Lamb, S. 1996). Completing school in Australia: Trends in the 1990s. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER).
This is Research report n.1 / Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth (Program). The report forms part of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth, a research program funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs.

Edith Cowan University. School of Language Education. (1994). Literacy in its place: An investigation of literacy practices in urban and rural communities. Churchlands WA: Edith Cowan University. School of Language Education.
This two volume report was funded as a Children's Literacy National Project under the Australian language and literacy policy administered by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training. Project director: M P Breen.

Osuch, M. (Comp). (1994). Families in Australia: a resource guide to the issues of the 90s. Port Melbourne Vic.: D W Thorpe.
This book is a survey of the bibliographic and reference material available on families in Australia in 1994, the International Year of the Family. It focuses on the issues that challenge governments and institutions no less than individuals. Many of these issues relate to the way the family has evolved over recent years. Issues covered are: divorce; fertility, surrogacy and adoption; family violence; one parent families; rural families; families from non English speaking backgrounds; homelessness; homosexuality; and, employment. Chapter contents include bibliographies of recent books, newspaper and journal articles, and addresses of key organisations. Also included are biographical notes on prominent and influential figures, a chronology of events and a glossary of terms.

Lee, P. (1993). Bilingual education in remote Aboriginal schools: Developing first and second language proficiency. Broome, WA: Catholic Education Office Kimberly Region.
Recommends measures to balance language instruction and develop proficiency in both vernacualr languages and English, and procedures to set up support networks for bilingual education in WA.

Conference papers

Cunnington, R. (1994). English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. In Best practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education: NLLIA celebrates the International Year of the World's Indigenous Peoples: proceedings of the conference held in Canberra on 17-18 November 1993 (pp. 54-56). Deakin ACT: National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia.
State schools in far north Queensland's remote communities now have an English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. This program was developed to help students communicate well in standard Australian English without losing any facility in the language or dialect in which they were raised. The program is context based. Teachers are asked to devise life-like social contexts that will allow the students to become personally involved and encourage them to talk, read and write in English appropriate to the context and genre.

Elliott, M. (1993). Non English-speaking background children in Wagga Wagga schools. In C. Boylan and M. Alston (Eds.) Rural education issues: an Australian perspective (Key papers n.3) (pp. 165-174). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University - Riverina. Centre for Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
A survey of non-English speaking background children in Wagga Wagga schools which recommends the need for further research, specialist and support staff.

Yunupingu, M. (1990). Language and power: The Yolngu rise to power at Yirrkala school. In C. Walton and W. Eggington (Eds.) Cross cultural issues in educational linguistics conference (1997, Batchelor College, NT) (pp. 3-6). Darwin: NTU Press.

Last updated 2 December 2001.