An International Comparison of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (2008) - Bibliography

An International Comparison of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975

Bibliography


Articles/Books/Reports

Appel A N, Gray A L and Loy N ‘The 40th Anniversary of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Symposium: Affirmative Action in the Workplace: Forty Years Later’ (2005) 22 Hofstra Labor & Employment Law Journal 549.

Australian Law Reform Commission, ‘Fighting Words: A Review of Sedition Laws in Australia’ (2006) ALRC Report 104.

Australian Law Reform Commission, Multiculturalism and the Law (1992) ALRC 57.

Australian Public Service Commission, State of the Service Report 2005-2006 (2006).

Bodrogi Bea, ‘Legal Standing, the Practical Experience of a Hungarian Organisation’ (2007) 5 European Anti-Discrimination Law Review 23.

Burnham U, ‘Public Law Update’ (2007) 15 New Law Journal 429.

Canadian Human Rights Act Review Panel, Promoting Equality: A New Vision (2000).
http://www.justice.gc.ca/chra/en/frp-c9.html (accessed 4/10/07).

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Anti-Harassment Policies for the Workplace: An Employer’s Guide (2006).

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Bona Fide Occupational Requirements and Bona Fide Justifications Under the Canadian Human Rights Act (2007)
http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/discrimination/occupational-en.asp (accessed 7/10/07).

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Duty to Accommodate Fact Sheet (2004)
http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/preventing_discrimination/duty_obligation-en.asp (accessed 9/8/07).

Canadian Human Rights Commission, Filing a Complaint (2003)
http://www.chrc-ccdp.ca/publications/filing_complaint-en.asp (accessed 6/10/07).

Commission for Racial Equality, CRE Briefings on Discrimination Law Review: Balancing Measures (2007)
http://www.cre.gov.uk/downloads/dlr_paper5.pdf (accessed 14/8/07).

Commission for Racial Equality, Towards Racial Equality: An evaluation of the public duty to promote race equality and good race relations in England and Wales (2002).

Department for Communities and Local Government ‘A Framework for Fairness: Proposals for a Single Equality Bill for Great Britain: a consultation paper’ (2007)
http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/communities/
frameworkforfairnessconsultation
(accessed 7/10/07).

De Plevitz L ‘The Briginshaw Standard of Proof in Anti-Discrimination Law: Pointing With a Wavering Finger’ (2003) 27(2) Melbourne University Law Review 308.

DeSario N J, ‘Reconceptualizing Meritocracy: The Decline of Disparate Impact Discrimination Law’ (2003) 38(2) Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 479.

Espin E ‘Burden of Proof in Council Directives 2000/43/EC and 2000/78/EC on equal treatment’ (Working Paper, Academy of European Law, 2005).

Fredman S, ‘Equality – A New Generation’ (2001) 30(2) Industrial Law Journal 145.

Galbraith-Marten J ‘The Fight Against Discrimination in Practice: Shifting the Burden of Proof and Access to Evidence’ (Working Paper, Academy of European Law, 2005).
http://www.era.int/web/en/resources/5_1095_4982_file_en.7063.pdf (accessed 12/11/07).

Gaze B, ‘Has the Racial Discrimination Act contributed to eliminating racial discrimination? Analysing the litigation track record 2000-2004’ (2005) 11(1) Australian Journal of Human Rights 171.

Green T K, ‘Making Sense of the McDonnell Douglas Framework: Circumstantial Evidence and Proof of Disparate Treatment under Title VII’ (1999) 87(4) California Law Review 983.

Griffiths L ‘The Implied Freedom of Political Communication: The State of the Law Post Coleman and Mulholland’ (2005) 12 James Cook University Law Review 93.

Gutman J. Federal Practice Manual for Legal Aid Attorneys (2006)
http://www.ejustice.org/federal_practice_manual_2006/chapter_3/
chap3sec1.html
(accessed 1/8/07).

Harrington J, ‘Making Sense of Equality: A Review of the Hepple Report’ (2001) 64(5) Modern Law Review 757.

Harris A G, ‘Shopping While Black: Applying 42 USC § 1981 to Cases of Consumer Racial Profiling’ (2003) 23 B.C. Third Word Law Journal 1.

Hepple B, ‘David C. Baum Memorial Lecture: The European Legacy of Brown v Board of Education’ (2006) 3 University of Illinois Law Review 605.

Houtzager D, Shifting Perspectives: Changing the Burden of Proof in Racial Equality Cases (2006).

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Isma – Listen: National consultations on eliminating prejudice against Arab and Muslim Australians (2004).

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, RDA Review 1995-97: Summary of Key Issues.

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Federal Discrimination Law 2005 (2005).

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, Federal Discrimination Law 2005: Supplement 1 March 2005 – 1 July 2007 (2007).

Hunyor J, ‘Skin-deep: Proof and Inferences of Racial Discrimination in Employment’ (2003) 25(4) Sydney Law Review 535.

Hurley M C, Chapter Equality Rights: Interpretations of Section 15 in Supreme Court of Canada Decisions BP-402E (2007)
http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/library/PRBpubs/bp402-e.htm#endnote5 (accessed 14/8/07).

Larson Lex, Employment Discrimination (2006).

Machpherson W, The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry: Report Of An Inquiry By Sir William Macpherson Of Cluny Advised By Tom Cook, The Right Reverend Dr John Sentamu, Dr Richard Stone (1999).

Millenson D, ‘Whither Affirmative Action: The Future of EO 11246’ (1999) 29 University of Memphis Law Review 679.

Moss I, ‘The Report of the National Inquiry into Racist Violence’ (1991) 49(2) Aboriginal Law Bulletin 16.

Neir C L, ‘Racial Hatred: A Comparative Analysis of the Hate Crime Laws of the United States and Germany’ (1994-95) 13 Dickinson Journal of International Law 241.

O’Cinneide C, United Kingdom Country Report on Measures to Combat Discrimination (2007) (unpublished)
http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights
/pdf/legnet/ukrep07_en.pdf
(accessed 3/8/07).

Pigott C, ‘Strands of Opportunity’ (2007) 157 New Law Journal 242.

Primus R A, ‘Equal Protection and Disparate Impact: Round Three’ (2003) 117(2) Harvard Law Review 493.

Ross S F, ‘Symposium: 20 Years Under the Charter: Charter Insights for American Equality Jurisprudence’ (2002) 21 Windsor Year Book of Access to Justice 227.

Smyth M and Falk A, Addressing Systemic Discrimination in the Public Sector (2003).

Stanton J F ‘The Fair Housing Act and Insurance: an Update and the Question of Disability Discrimination’ (2002) 31 Hofstra Law Review 141.

U.S. Department of Labor, Employment Law Guide (2007)
http://www.dol.gov/compliance/guide/discrim.htm (accessed 3/10/07).

Whitman R S, ‘Clearing the Mixed-Motive Smokescreen: An Approach to Disparate Treatment under Title VII’ (1989) 87(4) Michigan Law Review 863.

Williams C R, ‘Burdens and Standards in Civil Litigation’ (2003) 25(2) Sydney Law Review 165.

Wojciech S, ‘Gerhardy v Brown v the concept of discrimination: reflections on the landmark case that wasn’t’ (1986) 11(1) Sydney University Law Review 5.

Case Law

Australia

Australian Conservation Foundation v Commonwealth [1980] 146 CLR 493.

Australian Medical Council v Wilson [1996] 68 FCR 46.

Briginshaw v Briginshaw (1938) 60 CLR 336.

Executive Council of Australian Jewry v Scully [1998] 79 FCR 537.

Jones v Scully [2002] FCA 1080 (2 September 2002).

Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen, [1982] 153 CLR 236.

Lange v Australian Broadcasting Corporation [1997] 189 CLR 520.

Neat Holdings Pty Ltd v Karajan Holdings Pty Ltd [1992] 110 ALR 449.

Secretary, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade v Styles [1989] 23 FCR 251.

Secretary, Department of Veteran's Affairs v P [1998] 79 FCR 594.

Sharma v Legal Aid Queensland [2001] FCA 1699.

Canada

Almeida v Chubb Fire Security Division of Chubb Industries Ltd [1984] 5 CHRR D/2104.

Andrews v Law Society of British Columbia, [1989] 1 SCR 143.

Basi v Canadian National Railway [1988] CanLII 108 (CHRT).

B.C. (Superintendent of Motor Vehicles) v B.C. (Council of Human Rights) [1999] 3 SCR 868.

B(D) v Canada (Attorney General) [2000] SKQB (CanLII).

Bell Canada v CTEA, CEP and Femmes Action and the CHRC (2 November 2000), No. T-890-99 (FCA).

Brigitte Lavoie v Treasury Board of Canada 2007 CHRT 3
http://www.chrt-tcdp.gc.ca/search/view_html.asp?doid=823&lg=_e&isruling=0 (accessed 24/7/07).

British Columbia (Public Service Employee Relations Commission) v British Columbia Government and Service Employees' Union (B.C.G.S.E.U.), [1999] 3 S.C.R. 3 (‘Meiorin case’).

British Columbia (Superintendent of Motor Vehicles) v British Columbia (Council of Human Rights), [1999] 3 S.C.R. 868 (‘Grismer Case’).
Chandler and Joshi v Department of National Health and Welfare (unreported) TD 16/95, Decision rendered December 13 1995, Human Rights Tribunal.

http://www.chrt-tcdp.gc.ca/search/view_html.asp?doid=225&lg=_e&isruling=0 (accessed 5/11/07).

Communications, Energy & Paperworkers Union, Femmes-Action v Bell Canada, Ruling No. 1, CHRT, File No. T503/2098
http://www.chrt-tcdp.gc.ca/search/files/t503_2098re_11_29.pdf (accessed 3/8/07).

Groupe D’Aide et D’Information Sur le Harcèlement Sexuel au Travail de la Province de Québec Inc. v Barbe [2003] CHRT 24.

Israeli v Canada (Canadian Human Rights Commission) [1983] CanLII 5 (CHRT).

Kruska v Manufacturers Life Insurance Company [1984] 54 BCLR 343.

Lincoln v Bay Ferries Ltd [2004] FCA 204 (CanLII).

Lovelace v Ontario, 2000 SCC 37, [2000] 1 SCR 950.

Ontario Human Rights Commission v Simpson-Sears [1985] CanLII 18 (SCC).

PL v College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Province of Alberta [1999] ABCA 126 (CanLII).

R. v Keegstra, [1990] 3 SCR 697.

R v Oakes [1986] CanLII 46 (SCC).

R. v Turpin [1989] 1 SCR 1296.

Smith v Smith [1952] 2 SCR 312.

United Kingdom

An, R (on the application of) & Anor v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Ors [2005] EWCA Civ 1605.

Dattani v Chief Constable of West Mercia Police [2005] IRLR 327.

Dellow’s Will Trusts [1964] 1 WLR 451.

Gough v Chief Constable of the Derbyshire Constabulary [2002] QB 1213.

Igen v Wong [2005] ICR 931

King v Great Britain-China Centre [1991] IRLR 513.

Laing v Manchester City Council [2006] IRLR 748.

Madarassy v Nomura International Plc [2007] EWCA Civ 33.

R (on the application of Elias) v Secretary of State for Defence [2006] EWCA Civ 1293.

R v Secretary of State for the Home Department, ex p Khawaja [1984] AC 74 at 113F-114C.

Strathclyde Regional Council v Zafar [1997] UKHL 54.

United States

Adarand Constructors, Inc. v Pena 515 U.S. 200 (1995).

Addington v Texas 441 US 418 (1979).

Alexander v Choate, 469 U.S. 287 (1985).

Alexander v Sandoval, 532 U.S. 275 (2001).

Arguello v Conoco, Inc. 207 F.3d 803 (5th Cir. 2000).

Bolling v Sharpe, 347 US 497 (1954).

Calloway v. Partners National Health Plans, 986 F.2d 446 (11th Cir. 1993).

Chaplinsky v New Hampshire (1942) 315 U.S. 568.

City of Richmond v J.A. Croson Co., 488 U.S. 469 (1989).

Cox v Consolidated Rail Corp., 47 FEP 685 (D.D.C. 1987).

Faulk v Home Oil Co., 173 F.R.D. 311 (M.D. Ala. 1997).

Garcia v Spun Steak Co., 998 F2d 1480 (CA9 Cal 1993).

Griggs v Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971).

Grutter v Bollinger I23 S. Ct. 2325 (2003).

Hackett v McGuire Bros., Inc. 445 F.2d 442 (3d Cir. 1971).

Hunt v Washington State Apple Advertising Comm'n, 53 L. Ed. 2d 383 (1977).

Johnson v Transportation Agency 480 U.S. 616 (1987).

McDonnell Douglas Corp v Green 411 US 792 (1973).

Miller-El v Dretke 545 US 231 (2005).

Mt Healthy City School District Board of Education v Doyle 429 US 274 (1977).

New York Transit Authority v Beazer, 40 US 568 (1979).

Parents Involved in Community Schools v Seattle School District No. 1, No. 01-35450 (9th Cir. July 27, 2004).

Price Waterhouse v Hopkins 490 US 228 (1989).

Queen v Dresser Industries, Inc. 456 F Supp 257, (1978, DC Md), affd without op 609 F2d 509 (1979, CA4 Md).

RAV v City of St Paul 505 U.S. 377 (1992).

Reese v Batesville Casket Co., 25 FEP 1472 (D.D.C. 1981).

Reeves v Sanderson Plumbing Products Inc 530 US 133 (2000).

Regents of the University of California v Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978).

Santosky v Kramer 455 US 745 (1982).

Schneidrman v United States 320 US 118 (1943).

Teamsters v United States 431 US 324 (1977).

Texas Department of Community Affairs v Burdine 450 US 248 (1981).

United Steelworkers v Weber 443 U.S. 193 (1979).

Virginia v Black et. al., 538 U.S. 343 (2003).

Warth et al v Seldin et al, 422 U.S. 490.

Washington v Davis, 426 U.S. 229 (1976).

Wisconsin v Mitchell (92-515), 508 U.S. 47 (1993).

Wygant v Jackson Board of Education, 476 U.S. 267 (1986).

European Union

Gunduz v Turkey (2003) Eur Court HR 35071/97.

Jersild v Denmark (1994) Eur Court HR 15890/89.

Timishev v Russia (2005) Eur Court HR 55762/00 and 55954/00.

Van Gend & Loos (C-26/62) [1963] ECR 1.


Legislation

Australia

The following legislation can be found at http://www.austlii.edu.au/.

Australian Constitution.

Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW).

Criminal Code (WA).

Criminal Code Act 1995 (Cth).

Equal Employment Opportunity (Commonwealth Authorities) Act 1987 (Cth).

Equal Opportunity Act 1984 (WA).

Evidence Act 1995 (Cth).

Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Act (Cth) 1986.

Public Service Act 1922 (Cth).

Public Service Act 1999 (Cth).

Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth).

Sentencing Act 1995 (NT).

Workplace Relations Act 1996 (Cth).

Canada

The following legislation can be found at http://www.canlii.org/en/index.html.

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Schedule B Constitution Act 1982 (UK).

Canadian Human Rights Act, RS 1985, c H-6.

Criminal Code, RS 1985, c C-46.

Employment Equity Act, SC 1995, c 44.

Public Service Employment Act 2003 c 22.

United Kingdom

The following legislation can be found at http://www.bailii.org/.

Crime and Disorder Act 1998 (UK) c 37.

Criminal Justice Act 2003 c 44.

Disability Discrimination Act 1995 (UK) c 50.

Equality Act 2006 (UK) c 3.

Human Rights Act 1998 (UK) c 42.

Interpretation Act 1978 (UK) c 30.

Protection from Harassment Act 1997 (UK) c 40.

Public Order Act 1986 (UK) c 64.

Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 (UK) c 34.

Race Relations Act 1976 (Statutory Duties) Order 2001.

Race Relations Act 1976 (UK) c 74.

Race Relations Act 1976 (Amendment) Regulations 2003 SI 2003/1626.

Race Relations (Questions and Replies) Order 1977 SI 1977/842.

Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006 (UK) c 1.

Sex Discrimination Act 1975 (UK).

United States

The following legislation can be found at http://www.law.cornell.edu/.

Civil Rights Act of 1866, 42 USC § 1981.

Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 USC §§ 1971 et seq.

Civil Rights Act of 1968 (Fair Housing Act of 1968) 42 USC §§ 3601-3607.

Civil Rights Act of 1991, 42 USC §§ 1981 et seq.

Code of Federal Reglations (29 CFR 1600 et seq and 41 CFR 60 et seq).

Executive Order No 11246, 3 CFR § 339 (1964-1965).

Executive Order No 11478, 3 CFR § 803 (1966-1970).

Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act of 2007 H.R. 1592 (110th U.S. Congress: 2007-2008).

Pub. L. 90–284 (April 11 1964), 18 USC § 245.

United States Constitution.

European Union (Includes Directives, Proclamations, etc.)

Charter of Fundamental Rights for the European Union [2000] OJ 364/01 art 21(1).

Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective or racial or ethnic origin [2000] OJ L180/22.

Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission on fundamental rights, of 5 April 1977 [1977] OJ C 103.


Treaties

Consolidated Version of the Treaty on Establishing the European Community, [2002] OJ C 325.

Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 1950, CETS 5 (entered into force 3 September 1953).

International Convention on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, Article 20(2) (entered into force generally 23 March 1976).

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, opened for signature 21 December 1965, 660 UNTS 195 (entered into force 4 January 1969).

Protocol No 12 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 2000, CETS 177 (entered into force 1 April 2005).

Treaty of Amsterdam, opened for signature 2 October 1997, [1997] OJ C 340, (entered into force 1 May 1999).

Other Sources

Australian Public Service Commission Public Service Commissioner’s Directions: Consolidated Version (1999)
http://www.apsc.gov.au/publications/directionsConsolidated.htm (accessed 7/10/07).

Commission for Racial Equality, Public Authorities and Partnerships: A guide to the duty to promote race equality (2004), http://www.cre.gov.uk/downloads/duty_partnership.pdf (accessed 28/9/07)

Commission for Racial Equality, Race Equality and Public Procurement: A guide for public authorities and contractors (2003), http://www.cre.gov.uk/downloads/duty_proc_pa.pdf (accessed 28/9/07).

Commission for Racial Equality, Statutory Code of Practice on the Duty to Promote Equality (2002)
http://www.cre.gov.uk/downloads/duty_code.pdf (accessed 28/9/07).

Commission for Racial Equality The Race Equality Duty: Compliance and Enforcement http://www.cre.gov.uk/duty/compliance.html (accessed 28/9/07).

Concluding Observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination: Australia, UN Doc CERD/C/AUS/CO/14 (14 April 2005).

Council of the European Union, ‘Proposal for a Council Framework Decision on combating racism and xenophobia’, 8544/07 DROIPEN 34 (Brussels, 17 April 2007)
http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/07/st08/st08544.en07.pdf (accessed 30/8/07).

Employment Equity Act Review: A Report to the Standing Committee on Human Resources Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities (December 2001) http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/lp/lo/lswe/we/review/report/main.shtml#1 (accessed 1/10/07).

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Management Directive 715 (EEO MD-715), http://www.eeoc.gov/federal/eeomd715.html (accessed 3/10/07).

European Commission, ‘The Racial Equality Directive’ (Press Release 27 June 2007) http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=
MEMO/07/257&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en
(accessed 4/10/07).

European Commission, Enforcement of the Directives (2007) http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/fundamental_rights/legis/lgenforce_en.htm (accessed 9/7/07).

‘Getting Results’ funding program
http://www.cre.gov.uk/about/gettingresults.html (accessed 31/7/07).

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Promoting Aboriginal Economic Development
http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/saea-psab/pub/polinf/ifps_e.html (accessed 4/10/07).

Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Contracting Policy: Appendix D “The Federal Contractors Program for Employment Equity” (July 1 2003)
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/dcgpubs/Contracting/contractingpol_d_e.asp (accessed 1/10/07).

Treasury Board of Canada, Secretariat, Procurement Strategy for Aboriginal Business: Guidelines for Buyers/Government Officials (1997)
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/Pubs_pol/dcgpubs/ContPolNotices/97-6_e.asp#prom (accessed 4/10/07).