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Annotated and Select Bibliography on Rural and Remote Education in Australia

Rural and Remote

Education Inquiry

An Annotated and Select Bibliography

on Rural and Remote Education in Australia

Foreword

This bibliography

has been prepared by the Rural Education, Research and Development Centre,

Townsville, Qld according to guidelines established by the Human Rights

and Equal Opportunity Commission to assist in its inquiry into aspects

of rural and remote school education provision in Australia. It attempts

to include highly relevant, more recent, seminal, theoretical and policy-oriented

Australian materials. Only items which directly relate to rural and remote

education have been included. More broadly based materials have not been

included. Only a few overseas references are included.

Materials published

since 1990 have been included unless a work published prior to that date

is still considered seminally important and has had a substantial impact

on the development of policy and research in rural and remote education.

It was tempting to include works such as Turney, Sinclair and Cairns'

book Isolated schools: Teaching, learning and transition to work

(1980), because it was one of the first significant, systematic analyses

by Australian educators of the needs of children in rural and remote schools.

In the end, it was decided to omit it because of its age. For similar

reasons Sher's Rural education in urbanised nations (1981) was

also omitted.

The construction

of a select bibliography of this type is fraught with difficulties. It

was particularly difficult to keep the bibliography to a manageable size

including as it does research, theoretical and policy-oriented materials,

as requested by the Commission. Further, what appears as "seminal" to

one person will not appear so to another and changing social, cultural,

economic and political imperatives alter perceptions of what publications

are important.

To validate the selection

of items, the draft bibliography was sent for evaluation and review to

some fourteen scholars and practitioners in rural education who have a

special interest in the various areas. Their comments and suggestions

have been incorporated into the final bibliography.

The bibliography

is presented under the following headings:

  • Rural and remote

    education in general

  • Education for

    children with disabilities

  • Teacher training,

    in-service and retention

  • Income support

    and funding

  • Distance education

    and technology

  • Indigenous education
  • Education for

    non-English speaking background children

It proved difficult

sometimes knowing where to locate particular publications because their

subject matter crossed headings.

Under each heading

bibliographic references with short annotations are provided. These publications

are further listed by type of publication; for example, monographs, journal

articles, government reports, conference papers, and book chapters. Within

each of these sections, items are listed by date from most recent to least

recent.

Rural

and remote education in general

Government

reports

Commonwealth

Australia. Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs.

(1998). Differential access to higher education: The measurement of

socioeconomic status, rurality and isolation. (Chairperson Professor

John Western). Canberra: Department of Employment, Education, Training

and Youth Affairs.
The report examines and evaluates suitable and practicable alternative

methods of identifying students from low socioeconomic, rural and isolated

groups.

Australia. Department

of Primary Industries and Energy. (1998). The rural book: Part of the

Countrylink program (8th ed.). Canberra: Department of Primary Industries

and Energy.
The purpose of this book is to provide overviews and contact details

for the Commonwealth departments and programs, including those for education.

Robinson, L. & Ainley,

J. (1995) The availability of baseline data on equity in Australian

schools. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education and Training

(DEET).

Australia. Department

of Employment, Education and Training. (1994). Curriculum provision

in rural secondary schools: A report to the Country Areas Program, Schools

and Curriculum Division, Department of Employment, Education and Training

(Draft for comment). Camberwell, Victoria: ACER.
Includes examples of how information collected through the study can

be used to improve decision making on curriculum provision at school,

regional and system levels.

Australia. Department

of Primary Industries and Energy. Department of Human Services and Health.

(1994). Rural, remote and metropolitan areas classification 1991.

Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This classification was developed in response to the growing need for

knowledge and information about issues of concern to rural and remote

Australia.

Australia. Department

of Employment, Education and Training (DEET). Schools and Curriculum Division.

Targeted Programs Branch. (1993). National strategy for equity in schooling:

Paper for consultation: draft. Canberra: Australia Department of Employment

Education and Training (DEET).
This report was developed by an Australian Education Council Schools

Working Party and deals with a range of policy matters including rural

students and matters affecting rural education.

Australia. National

Board of Employment, Education and Training. (1991). Toward a national

education and training strategy for rural Australians. Canberra, Australian

Government Publishing Service.
The report highlights inequalities in the participation rates of non-metropolitan

people in education and training when compared to their metropolitan counterparts.

The report proposes the development of a national education and training

strategy for rural Australians arguing for co-operation between Commonwealth

and State/Territory governments and their active commitment to co-ordinating

their activities. The analysis reveals that outback children are seriously

disadvantaged.

Griffin, M. and Batten,

M. (1991). Equity in schools: an independent perspective: A study of

equity policies, programs and practices in nongovernment, nonsystemic

schools. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This project was funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment,

Education and Training. The study was conducted by the Australian Council

for Educational Research.

Australia. Commonwealth

Schools Commission. Curriculum Development Centre. (1988). Schooling

in rural Australia. Canberra: Curriculum Development Centre.
A major report which is built upon input from various interest groups

and from commissioned reports. It deals with such issues as Commonwealth

and State support for rural schooling, access to schooling, teachers and

rural schooling and rural schooling and the use of technology. Its recommendations

are wide-ranging including such matters as living away from home accommodation

support scheme, encouragement for the development of and financial support

for off-campus teacher education programs, and in-service education.

State

Queensland. Dept of Education. (1994). Social justice strategy 1994-1998:

Issues and strategies: Draft. Book 2. Brisbane: Dept of Education.
Deals with a range of policy matters including access to education

in rural areas as well as a range of social justice issues.

Western Australia.

Ministerial Review of Schooling in Rural Western Australia. (1994). Schooling

in rural Western Australia. (Chair: D Tomlinson). Perth: Western Australia

Education Department.
This report questions the role of "rurality" in explaining the performance

of rural/remote students and schools indicating that factors such as socioeconomic

status are more powerful.

Queensland. Department

of Education. (1993). Rurality and participation in schooling: A project

funded under the Country Areas Program (National Element) of the Commonwealth

Department of Employment, Education and Training and undertaken for the

Australian Council by the Department of Education, Queensland. Canberra:

Australian Education Council.
Major outcomes of this investigation carried out by K Rousseau are

a working definition to describe rural locations and suggested methods

for the classification of urban and rural locations.

Monographs

Mackenzie, P., Harrold,

R. & Sturman, A. (1996). Curriculum provision in rural secondary schools.

(ACER Research Monograph No. 48). Melbourne: ACER.
This report is intended to assist school and system decision makers

by improving the information base on rural secondary schools.

Stern, C.D. (Ed.)

(1994). The condition of education in rural schools. Washington,

DC: US Department of Education.
An overview of the condition of education in rural America. It was

prepared to assist policy makers and practitioners by providing concise

and current information on rural education in America.

Higgins, A. (1993).

Rural difference: A challenge for beginning teachers. Townsville:

Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.

Based on the author's lecture notes, this is an excellent introduction

to living and teaching in rural areas covering such matters as characteristics

of isolated learners and isolated teachers, curriculum in rural schools

and rural schooling and technology.

Conference

papers

Boylan, C., Nor,S.,

& Rahman,A. A. (1996). Rural education provision: Insights from Malaysia

and Australia. Paper presented at the Joint Conference of Educational

Research Association, Singapore and Australian Association for Research

in Education, 25-29 November 1996, Singapore Polytechnic. Conference theme:

Education research: building new partnerships.
An analysis of government policies on educational provision in New

South Wales and Malaysia for rural children. The impact of programs on

school organisation, curriculum delivery and teacher training are examined.

Issues of educational disadvantage and sustainability of programs are

examined as a basis for recommending actions that can improve the quality

of education for rural students.

McSwan, D. & McShane,

M. (Eds.). (1994). An international conference on issues affecting

rural communities. Proceedings of the conference held by the Rural

Education Research and Development Centre at Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel,

Townsville, Queensland, Australia, 10-15 July 1994. Townsville: Rural

Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
This important international conference brought together a large gathering

of rural scholars and professionals. The proceedings contain a large number

of papers covering policy, practice and pedagogy in areas such as education,

health and community and economic development.

Walton, J. (1991,

November) Interpretations of rurality and their implications. Unpublished

paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education

annual conference, Surfers Paradise 26-30 November 1991. Conference theme:

Practitioners, researchers and policy makers: changing coalitions?
This paper attempts to explore that mosaic of symbols and meanings

that often form part of the Australian understanding of rurality. It considers

the impact of this mosaic on people's perceptions, and suggests that possible

influence of these perceptions on school curricula, retention rates, gender

issues, employment opportunities and teacher attitudes in rural areas.

Clark, S. (1990).

Rural education research: a "state of the art" review. Keynote

paper to "Think Tank" on research into rural education held at Sheraton

Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14 1990. Townsville: Rural

Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
This paper attempts to summarise research findings relating to rural

education following a literature survey. Topics covered include schooling,

technology and educational delivery.

Journal

articles

D'Plesse, P. (1992).

Redefining remoteness in the post industrial society. Education in

Rural Australia, 2 (1), 1-6.
The article suggests a definition for the concept of remoteness and

explores how it may alter within the context of the emerging information

based society.

Sher, J. P. and Sher,

K. R. (1994) Beyond the conventional wisdom: Rural development as if Australia's

rural people and communities really mattered. Journal of Research in

Rural Education, 10 (1), 2-43.
An outline of what rural development could encompass as Australia enters

the 21st century. It argues that Australia has no coherent and explicit

national rural development policy and advocates a policy which places

primary emphasis on the actual well-being of rural peoplle and communities.

Education

for children with disabilities

Government

reports

State

Northern Territory Board of Studies. (1994) Special education policy:

Provision for students with disabilities in Northern Territory schools.

Darwin: Northern Territory. Dept of Education
Although special education policies have been published by other state

education departments, this report spotlights a range of special education

policy issues including special education needs in rural areas.

Read, N. (1988).

Service delivery for children with special needs who live in isolated

areas: a survey. Hobart: Tasmania Education Department.
A useful government policy report on service delivery for children

with special needs in isolated Tasmania.

Monographs

Rural Education Research

and Development Centre. (1999). A whole Community approach to otitis

media: Reducing its incidence and effects. Townsville: Rural Education

Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
An interim report after the first year of a project to assist the Queensland

Health Promotion Council in its developmental work on otitis media (OM).

The project aims to reduce the incidence of effects of OM in three communities,

to improve learning outcomes of children who are suffering or who have

suffered OM, and embed appropriate practices in local communities.

Higgins, A.H. (1997).

Addressing the health and education consequences of Otitis Media among

young rural school-aged children. Townsville: Australian Rural Education

Research Association (Inc.).
An important report which addresses several issues including the extent

of the link between the incidence of otitis media and trachoma and learning

difficulties among remote rural children up to ten years old, and to provide

learning materials for the children and communities in which the conditions

occur.

Brentnall, B. & Dunlop,

M. (1985). Distance and disability: A survey of children with disabilities

in isolated areas of Australia. Sydney: United Church National Mission

Frontier Services.
This survey was done following an appeal for assistance arising from

the annual conference of the Isolated Children's Parents Association in

1981. It seeks to establish the prevalence of children with disabilities

in isolated areas of Australia.

Theses

Crease, I. D. (1991).

Supporting disabled students in rural Queensland: An exploratory study

(Thesis). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland.
This thesis addresses the difficulties that are related to providing

education for disabled students in rural locations in Queensland. It explores

the challenge that disabled students may place on teaching principals

and the needs that are created on account of the interrelatedness of isolation,

disability and integration. The conclusions reached from the interviews

conducted and the surveys that were developed have implications for policy

guidelines that address remote and rural education in general, the way

preservice teacher preparation courses are constructed, and how professional

support services are delivered in rural areas where integration is an

accepted and natural practice.

Conference

papers

Pagliano, P. (1998).

Special education, rurality and research. In D. McSwan (Ed.), An international

symposium on the Doctor of Philosophy for candidates and supervisors:

A focus on rural issues, 30 June-2 July 1997 (pp. 45-49). Townsville:

Rural Education Research and Development Centre, James Cook University

of North Queensland.
Examines a number of research issues as they relate to special education

and rurality, using illustrations from the research of the author and

that of his research students.

Bandy, H. E. & Boyer,

W. A. R. (1994). The impact of special needs students on teachers in the

rural areas of British Columbia. In D. McSwan and M. McShane (Eds.), An

international conference on issues affecting rural communities: Proceedings

of the conference held by the Rural Education Research and Development

Centre at Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville Queensland Australia,

10-15 July 1994 (pp. 232-241). Townsville: James Cook University of

North Queensland. Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This study found that the majority of rural teachers in British Columbia

perceived that both their inservice and preservice education had inadequately

prepared them for the realities of inclusion. The teachers cited a high

percentage of children with special needs in their classrooms, a wide

range of disabilities, a grave concern regarding the lack of support services,

and a perceived inability to provide optimal educational programs. Repeatedly

the teachers reported the implementation of a variety of individualised

learning experiences.

Johanssen, P. (1994).

Educational services for students with severe/multiple disabilities in

rural Western Australian schools. Partnerships in teaching and learning:

Australian Association of Special Education 18th National Conference,

30th September-3rd October 1994: papers and presentations. [Buranda

Qld]: Australian Association of Special Education (AASE)
Western Australia has followed the path of devolution of centrally

organised services to schools, as have other States. However, because

of the low incidence of students with severe and multiple disabilities

and the extreme remoteness of many of their locations, a centrally funded

and organised service provides support to country schools where these

students are enrolled. This service assists the schools in the implementation

of the Education Department's policy and the Task Force recommendations

to provide appropriate educational programs for such students.

Cross, L. & Burrell,

J. (1991). What about me: ever thought about including rural Australians

who also may have an intellectual disability? What Does Social Justice

Mean for Education in Rural Australia? Sixth National Conference Proceedings,

July, 1990, Wagga Wagga, NSW, Society for the Provision of Education

in Rural Australia (SPERA).
Discusses possible scenarios to illustrate some of the problems and

options for inclusion for rural Australians with disabilities.

O'Neill, C. & Linfoot,

K. (1989). Issues concerning the integration of students with special

needs. In `Research and future development of education in Australia':

unpublished papers presented at the annual conference of the Australian

Association for Research in Education held at the University of Adelaide

28 Nov - 2 Dec 1989, 13 pages. Adelaide:
Nongovernment schools have also begun to offer enrolment to students

with disabilities in a more systematic way than hitherto. Data are presented

on the attitudes of teachers and principals in nongovernment schools in

western NSW towards the enrolment of students with disabilities. The paper

examines issues relating to resources needed to support these enrolments

and implications for curriculum adaptions.

Journal

articles

Wolstenholme, R.

(1996). Caring for Aboriginal people with disabilities. Australian

Disability Review, 3, 3-14.
Examines emerging trends and demographic patterns of the Aboriginal

communities involved within a framework of cultural vitality theory.

Westling, D. L. &

Whitten, T. M. (1996). Rural special education teachers' plans to continue

or leave their teaching positions. Exceptional Children, 62, 319-335.
Survey of 158 rural special education teachers to determine teachers'

plans for remaining in or leaving their current positions. Data suggested

that administrative support and job requirements played important roles

in teachers' five-year plans.

Winn, S. (1995).

Hearing impairment services itinerant teaching service in South Australia.

Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 1 (1), 22-27.
The itinerant teaching is similar to that used in other states. The

paper discusses what was, what is, and a projection of how the service

could operate in the future, noting the difficulty of service provision

in the country region where access to allied services is difficult.

Yonowitz, L., Yonowitz,

A., Nienhuys, T. & Boswell, J. (1995). MLD evidence of auditory pprocessing

factors as a possible barrier to literacy for Australian Aboriginal children.

Australian Journal of Education of the Deaf, 1 (1), 34-42.
Findings indicated that Aboriginal children may be at a disadvantage

for listening to speech, particularly English, in noisy settings. The

discussion addresses intervention issues.

Douglan, M. (1989).

Educating blind and visually impaired children in Western Australia. Journal

of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 83, 51-55.
Discusses the history of education of the blind and visually impaired

people in the State, and special problems of itinerant teachers who may

travel hundreds of miles to see one student.

Hayes, A. & Livingstone,

S. (1986). Mainstreaming in rural communities: An analysis of case studies

in Queensland schools. The Exceptional Child, 3 (3), 35-48. Mainstreaming

in rural schools is often a matter of necessity. Key issues in rural mainstreaming

are offered as a basis of future research.

Shaddock, A. J. &

Batchler, M.W. (1986). An analysis of the use of telconferencing to support

a rural early intervention program. The Exceptional Children. 37

(3), 215-219.
Discusses functions of teleconferences in an early intervention program.

Teacher

training, in-service and retention

Book

chapters

Boylan, C. (1997).

A rural perspective on professional development. In R. J. King, D. M.

Hill and J A Retallick (Eds.). Exploring professional development in

education, pp.123-144. Wentworth Falls NSW: Social Science Press.
This chapter sets out to establish that for rural teachers, participation

in professional development programs that can be accessed by a variety

of delivery modes, produce lasting outcomes that enhance rural teacher

retention. Rural teachers cite intellectual isolation as their most pressing

professional concern.

Marland, P., Gibson,

I., Gibson, K., King, S., Lester, N. & Young, P. (1994). Multgrade teaching:

An exploratory study. In P. Marland and K. Smith (Eds.) Knowledge and

competencies for beginning teaching: A report of a policy development

initiative, pp.167-201. Toowong, Qld: Queensland Board of Teacher

Registration.
Although not specifically targeted at rural education, this discussion

is of particular interest because of the prevalence of multi-grade classrooms

in rural schools. The aim of the project is to provide an adequate basis

for strategic planning by teacher education institutions in respect of

preparing teachers for effective multigrade teaching.

Conference

papers

Grant, M. (1996).

Promoting rural Aboriginal off-campus study using information technology

and other innovative strategies. Paper presented at the Joint Conference

of Educational Research Association, Singapore and Australian Association

for Research in Education, 25-29 November 1996, Singapore Polytechnic.

Conference theme: Education research: building new partnerships.
Indigenous students from rural New South Wales (Australia) must cope

with isolation and distance from the University as they undertake Diploma

in Aboriginal Education/ Bachelor of Teaching studies in a part-time mixed-mode

course. Once immersed in their communities following residential schools,

they struggled to manage their studies along with work, family, and community

responsibilities. Following a review of the program in 1995 a number of

initiatives using information technology were taken.

Gibson,I. W. & King,

S. (1995). Pre-service preparation for teaching in small rural communities.

In D. Riley (Ed.). Lifelong learning in rural areas: between a rock

and a hard place: proceedings of the 11th National Conference (pp.

31-41). Toowoomba: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia

(SPERA).
This paper reports a case study in teacher education, describing innovative

teaching approaches to rural teacher preparation. It looks at course work,

curriculum delivery, teaching practice, the use of information and communication

technology, professional development, teacher support, school management,

school community relationships, and political contexts.

Gibson, I. W. (1993).

Policy, practice and need in the professional preparation of teachers

for rural teaching: an Australian perspective. Unpublished paper presented

at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in

Education (AARE), Fremantle 22-25 November 1993. Conference theme: Educational

research: making a difference.
This paper, based on research which explores the perceptions of a sample

of teachers newly appointed to isolated rural schools during the course

of one academic year in the western regions of Queensland, analyses current

policy and practice relating to the selection of teachers for rural areas

of Australia and contrasts these to the perceptions of rural teachers

regarding needed additions to preservice preparation.

Boylan, C., Sinclair,

R., Smith, A., Squires, D., Edwards, J., Jacob, A., O'Malley, D. & Nolan,

B (1993). Retaining teachers in rural schools. In C Boylan and M Alston

(Eds.) Rural education issues: an Australian perspective (pp. 81-89).

(Key papers n.3). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University - Riverina.

Centre for Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld: Society for

the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
The paper addresses issues such as teacher satisfaction with teaching

and their present situation; levels of expressed commitments to teaching;

some teacher perceptions of their communities' attitudes to education

and how their communities regard them; and teachers' perceptions of life

in rural environments.

Journal

articles

Yarrow, A., Ballantyne,

R., Hansford, B., Herchell, P. & Millwater, J. (1999). Teaching in rural

and remote schools: A literature review. Teaching and Teacher Education,

15, 1-13.
An excellent summary of recent research into the preparation and support

for teachers working in rural and remote schools. Although reviewed from

an Australian perspective, it evaluates research from throughout the world.

Boylan, C. & McSwan,

D. (1998). Long-staying rural teachers: Who are they? Australian Journal

of Education, 42 (1), 49-65.
This report analyses available studies and, among other things, reveals

much variation in the definition of `long-staying'. A survey was administered

which sought information on professional pre- and inservice education,

satisfaction, commitment and community. There emerges a profile of a professionally

satisfied, community integrated family oriented teacher who enjoyed the

rural lifestyle and environment. The results carry strong messages for

teacher education and teacher selection processes.

Dunshea, G. (1998).

Beginning principals and the issue of gender in rural and regional areas.

Asia Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 26 (3), .203- 215.
This paper reports qualitative data arising from an interview study

of a small group of beginning women principals in rural and regional areas

of New South Wales, Australia. The data demonstrate not only that there

are distinctive issues for female school leaders, but that the conservative

rural and regional context in which they work probably intensifies these

issues. The paper concludes with a recommendation for further research

examining the experiences of female beginning principals in a variety

of social and cultural locations.

Partington, G. (1997).

Practice teaching in remote Aboriginal communities: The need for adaptation

to the social and cultural context. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,.22

(1), 31-39.
As part of the teacher education program at Edith Cowan University,

a small group of student teachers experience teaching practice in remote

Aboriginal communities. In this paper, student teacher perceptions of

their experiences on such a practice are presented to illustrate the influence

of the practice on their views about teaching Aboriginal children.

Boylan, C. (1996).

Practice teaching in a distance education centre: Expanding opportunities

for teacher education students. Education in Rural Australia, 6

(1), 37-41.
A report describing the success of a program, for a small group of

pre service students who completed a practice teaching experience in a

distance education centre.

Smith, R. and Macindoe,

M. (1991). Education and the interactive multimedia technologies: The

Remote Area Teacher Education Project (RATEP). Unicorn, 17 (3),

139-145.
This paper outlines the Remote Area Teacher Education Project (RATEP),

the technologies involved, the principles of courseware production and

what has been learnt in the process of courseware development at James

Cook University. RATEP is unique in that the delivery of courses is to

students in remote locations using interactive multimedia technology and

the project has involved the cooperation of four major educational institutions

in Queensland: James Cook University of North Queensland; Queensland University

of Technology; Cairns College of TAFE; and the Queensland Education Department.

The importance of RATEP and community involvement are discussed and examples

of student tracking and authoring techniques are provided.

Income

support and funding

Government

reports

Australia. Dept of

Employment Education and Training (DEET) Targeted Programs Branch. (1994)

The National Equity Program for Schools: improving the ways we allocate

equity funds. Canberra: Dept of Employment Education and Training

(DEET).
The Program is based on the National Strategy for Equity in Schools

(1993).

Cumming, J. (1992).

Resourceful communities: integrating education, training and work for

young people in rural Australia. Belconnen, ACT, Australian Curriculum

Studies Association (ACSA).
The result of a twelve month project (Educational Resources for Enterprising

Communities in Rural Australia project) conducted by ACSA in 1991-92 and

jointly funded by the Commonwealth Departments of Employment, Education

and Training and Primary Industries and Energy. The book is about community-based

partnerships between education, business, government and non-government

interest groups in education, business and non-government interest groups

in rural Australia.

Monographs

Bendigo College of

Advanced Education. (1990). AUSTUDY rural inequities. Bendigo:

Bendigo College of Advanced Education.
A joint project of the Country Education Project, the Office of Rural

Affairs and the Victorian Country Youth Affairs Network. The purpose of

the project was to identify the effect of AUSTUDY on rural people and

to develop strategies to bring about changes to the scheme where it was

found that inequities existed. Five areas are addressed in the report:

access to reliable and accurate information about AUSTUDY in rural areas;

the adequacy of the living away from home allowance; the impact of AUSTUDY

on retention rates in secondary schools; the assets test and the income

tests; and the transition from dependence to independence for young people

and assumptions made by AUSTUDY about that transition.

Theses

Griffith, D. A. (1996).

Development of a spatial model to quantify access to services in rural

and remote areas of Australia (Thesis). Casuarina, NT: Northern Territory

University.
This study describes a model, the Griffith Service Access Frame, which

quantifies the relative access disadvantage of rural and remote population

centres in Australia. The study limits the application of the model to

educational services to enable a detailed comparative analysis to be undertaken

using the Griffith Service Access Frame and the Commonwealth Department

of Employment, Education and Training's Country Areas General Component

formula. The study provides evidence of the Griffith Service Access Frame's

face validity by providing evidence of a high correlation between the

perceptions of the inhabitants of seventeen education regions, through

their ranking of schools in the Northern Territory, Tasmania and Queensland

and their rankings as generated by the Griffith Service Access Frame.

Clark, S. L. (1992).

Rural education or education in rural areas: an exploratory study in Queensland

(Thesis). Townsville, Qld, James Cook University of North Queensland.
This thesis explores the type of education desired by teachers and

parents in rural and remote areas of Queensland. Teachers and parents

of school eligible for Priority Country Area Program (PCAP) funding within

the catchment areas of Longreach and Charters Towers Schools of Distance

Education were surveyed by questionnaire. Suggestions for future policy

have been made in authenticating the curriculum for rural and remote students,

providing rural specific subjects in teacher education courses, inducting

teachers through community based programs and in empowering students to

make informed choices regarding the use of telecommunications in overcoming

the tyranny of distance.

Conference

papers

Witham, M. (1998).

A rationale for allocating resources to country schools. Unpublished

paper presented at the Australian Rural education Research association

Adelaide Seminar, University of South Australia City East Campus 4 December

1998.
Examines the current basis for allocating resources to government schools

in South Australia. The analysis shows that there is not currently a policy

of providing additional resources on the basis of rurality or geographic

isolation.

Griffith, D. (1998).

"Boiling the Frog": The dangers of linking efficiency targets, economic

rationalism, national educational benchmarks to resource allocation and

the implications to systems with significant numbers of disadvantaged

students. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Rural education

Research association Adelaide Seminar, University of South Australia City

East Campus 4 December 1998.
The paper discusses the role of the Commonwealth in establishing educational

priorities, benchmarks for educational outcomes and target groups. The

case for the development and adoption of objective definitions and classification

of students is argued to enable improved educational outcomes to be achieved

for all Australians.

Sheed, J. and Lloyd,D.

(1993). AUSTUDY rural inequities. In C Boylan and M Alston (Eds.) Rural

education issues: an Australian perspective (pp. 81-89). (Key papers

n.3). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University - Riverina. Centre for

Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld: Society for the Provision

of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
This paper provides a summary of a project which identified the effect

of AUSTUDY on rural people and which aimed to develop strategies to bring

about changes to the scheme where it was found inequities existed.

Cooper, R. S. (1992).

Tasmanian school resource allocation formulas. Unpublished paper

presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE)/New

Zealand Association for Research in Education (NZARE) Joint Conference,

Deakin University Geelong 22-26 November 1992. Conference theme: Educational

research: discipline and diversity.
The paper summarises the development of formulas used to distribute

staffing and financial resources to Tasmanian schools and colleges in

1992. The concept of a needs weighted per capita allocation was introduced

to provide an equitable basis for the distribution of resources to schools.

Boylan,C. (Ed). (1991).

What does social justice mean for education in rural Australia?: Sixth

National Conference proceedings, July 1990, Albury NSW. Wagga Wagga,

NSW: Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia.
The four major issues discussed at the conference centred around equity,

participation, access and rights.

Larocque, L. (1990).

National examination of the Country Areas Program. In M. McShane and J.

Walton (Eds.) "Think Tank" on research into rural education: proceedings

of the conference held by the Rural Education, Research and Developemnt

Centre at the Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14,

1990 (pp. 115-123). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland:

Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This paper examines the Country Areas Program and looks at the National

Board of Employment, Education and Training's involvement in rural education

issues, rural education and training and Government reports, student retention,

financial recommendations and funding, and other related areas.

Distance

education and technology

Government

reports

Gray, A (1994). Expanding

opportunities for learning: report for the National Country Area Program

on alternate delivery systems. Brisbane: Queensland Dept of Education.

Open Access Support Centre.
This report provides an overview of 18 delivery technologies which

are of relevance to rural schools and discusses their advantages and disadvantages

when used in educational contexts. It also examines issues relating to

the selection, establishment and management of the communications and

information technologies likely to be employed in rural schools.

Monographs

Calzoni, F. (1991).

The Australian School of the Air: a conceptual analysis of its origins,

history and recent developments, with particular reference to distance

education in Western Australia 1955-1990. Perth: Murdoch University.
This study is the first systematic attempt to analyse the Australian

School of the Air as a progressive development in modern education. The

study analyses the origins and development of these unique schools throughout

Australia, but with particular reference to their place in distance education

in Western Australia from 1959 to 1990. Their stress on fully functioning

primary education, individualised teaching and community involvement helped

rather than hindered their pervasive influence, as wider spheres of distance

education came to embrace much of their methodology.

Conference

reports

Cuskelly, E., Danaher,P.

& Purnell, K. (1997). Just which technology do distance students really

want? results of focus group research. In J Osborne, D Roberts and J Walker

(Eds.) Open, flexible and distance learning: education and training

in the 21st century: selected papers from the 13th Biennial Forum of the

Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia (ODLAA) (in association

with the Australian Association of Distance Education Schools), University

of Tasmania, Launceston, 29 September - 3 October 1997 (pp. 88-93).

Launceston: University of Tasmania.
Students in guided group discussion were generally more comfortable

with technology at the level of telephone, audio and video tapes, than

with the Internet and the latest remote-conferencing facilities.

Webster, B.J. and

Young, D. J. (1997) Equality of opportunity in rural schools: an Australian

study. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association

for Research in Education (AARE), 30 November - 4 December 1997.
The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was conducted

in Australia in 1994 among 13-year-old students in 161 schools. This study

involved the use of a multilevel model to examine the effect of school

resources on student achievement in mathematics and science. Resources

examined included the use of computers, technology and other physical

resources provided by the school for academic learning.

Boylan, C. (1996).

Practice teaching in a distance education centre: Expanding opportunities

for teacher education students. Education in Rural Australia, 6

(1).
A report describing the success of a program, for a small group of

pre service students who completed a practice teaching experience in a

distance education centre.

Oliver, R. & Reeves,

T. (1994). An investigation of the use of telecommunications to increase

equity and access to education in Rural schools in Western Australia.

In educational multimedia and hypermedia, 1994. Proceedings of ED-MEDIA

94: World conference on educational multimedia and hypermedia. Vancouver,

British Columbia, Canada, June 25-30, 1994.
Reports on PCAP project in WA and discusses real-time electronic communications

to enhance the equity and access to schooling for students in rural schools.

Stevens, K. & Mason, D. (1994). The reduced significance of geographic

isolation for rural education: some implications for small communities

in New Zealand, Australia and Canada. In D. Riley (Ed.) The rural community

and its school: in partnership for the future (Proceedings of the

10th National Conference held in Fremantle, Western Australia, 12-15 October

1994) (pp. 145-151). Toowoomba: Society for the Provision of Education

in Rural Australia (SPERA).
The paper considers the significance of geographic isolation and the

implications of introducing new information and communication technologies

for small communities in New Zealand, Australia and Canada.

Shewring, B. (1993).

Delivery of secondary education to remote Aboriginal communities using

communication technologies. In The emerging culture of educational

administration: putting the heat on administrators: collected papers:

Australian Council for Educational Administration National Conference,

Darwin Northern Territory, 5-8 July 1992 (Volume 4: Education and

society - social issues). Darwin: Northern Territory Council for Educational

Administration.
This paper focuses on the question of, and the problems associated

with the development, management and administration of Junior Secondary

Education for remote Aboriginal students using technology. This is examined

using one of the proposed Aboriginal Education Projects for the 1993/95

triennium.

Squires, D., Sinclair,

R. & Bell, R. (1991). Schools, technology and community development. In

C. Boylan (Ed.) Rural education and local development: proceedings

of the Seventh Annual National Conference, July 1991, Hawkesbury Campus,

University of Western Sydney (pp. 133-139). [Wagga Wagga NSW]: Society

for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
As part of its Rural Education Plan, the New South Wales Government

in 1990 conducted a trial in a small number of its rural central schools

whereby schools that previously could offer courses only to Year 10 were

able, by use of modern communications technologies and the concept of

clustering, to extend to offering the full Higher School Certificate range

of courses to Years 11 and 12. This paper explores some of the interesting

but probably unforeseen consequences of a program to increase equity and

participation in education in the bush.

Journal

articles

McLoughlin,C. (1998).

The student voice: perceptions of autonomy and collaboration in learning

with technology. Australian Educational Computing, 13 (2), 28-33.
This paper reports on the insights and responses of a group of students

who accessed the gifted and talented program via telematics during 1996-1997,

using audiographic conferencing.

Indigenous

education

Government

reports

Commonwealth

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Australian Bureau of

Statistics. (1996). National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

Survey 1994: regional statistics. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Includes statistics from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing

and the 1992 ATSIC Housing and Community Infrastructure Needs Survey.

Australia. Department

of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). (1996).

Desert schools: an investigation of English language and literacy among

young Aboriginal people in seven communities. Canberra: Department

of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA).
A three-volume report, including a literature review (Volume 3). This

National Children's Literacy Project was funded by the Department of Employment,

Education, Training and Youth Affairs under the 1993/4 Children's Literacy

National Projects and undertaken by the NLLIA South Australian Teaching

and Curriculum Centre, University of Adelaide and University of South

Australia. Principal researchers: J. Barnett, G. Kemelfield and P. Muhlhausler.

Australia. Department

of Emplyment, Education and Training. (1994). National review of education

for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: Final report. (Chair:

M Yunupingi). Canberra: Department of Emplyment, Education and Training.
A seminally important report dealing with a range of policy issues

affecting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education. Areas covered

include rural education, program evaluation, community involvement and

financial support.

Coles, P. (1994).

Educational and vocational training needs of the Aboriginal labour

market in rural and remote areas of the Northern Territory. Canberra:

Australian Government Publishing Service.
Survey of employment aspirations and opportunities in remote areas

of Northern Territory undertaken by Batchelor College.

Australia. Department

of Employment, Education and Training. (1992). Aboriginal employment,

education and training. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing

Service.
Outlines federal government education policy and programs.

State

McCue, G. (1993). Results of the 1992 Primary Assessment Program in

non-urban schools. (Research and evaluation report n.1 1993, Northern

Territory. Curriculum and Assessment Branch). Darwin: Department of Education.
Prepared for the Northern Territory Board of Studies this publication

reports on academic achievement in rural schools in the Territory.

Scott, T. (1993).

Issues in education in remote rural Australia: Western Australia Ministerial

Review of Schooling in Rural Western Australia. Perth: Western Australia.

Education Dept.
This review sought: to determine the extent to which educational opportunities

and outcomes for rural students differed from those of their metropolitan

peers; to identify factors which might impact upon rural students' access

to schooling; and to recommend future strategic directions for schooling

in rural Western Australia.

Monographs

Rural Education Research

and Development Centre. (1999). A whole Community approach to otitis

media: Reducing its incidence and effects. Townsville: Rural Education

Research and Development Centre, James Cook University.
An interim report after the first year of a project to assist the Queensland

Health Promotion Council in its developmental work on otitis media (OM).

The project aims to reduce the incidence of effects of OM in three communities,

to improve learning outcomes of children who are suffering or who have

suffered OM, and embed appropriate practices in local communities.

Higgins, A.H. (1997).

Addressing the health and education consequences of Otitis Media among

young rural school-aged children. Townsville: Australian Rural Education

Research Association (Inc.).
An important report which addresses several issues including the extent

of the link between the incidence of otitis media and trachoma and learning

difficulties among remote rural children up to ten years old, and to provide

learning materials for the children and communities in which the conditions

occur.

Symonds, R. and J.

Glasby (1996). The Bushlink Project: a Katherine Region initiative.
Katherine High School is 320 km south of Darwin in the Northern Territory;

it is the only high school in the region, which covers 408,000 square

km. Within the region are 12 schools, 4 Community Education Centres and

4 urban primary schools, as well as a School of the Air. Bush schools

are geographically isolated and synonymous with Aboriginal Education.

This paper reports.

Retallick, J. Hill,

D., et al. (1995). Workplace learning and the use of Curriculum Statements

and Profiles by teachers of educationally disadvantaged students.
The purpose of the research was to trial the workplace model of professional

development to facilitate use of Curriculum Statements and Profiles by

teachers operating within the New South Wales syllabus guidelines with

educationally disadvantaged students. The project focused on improving

the learning outcomes of such students in the middle years of schooling

(Years 5-8) with particular emphasis on those who were experiencing educational

disadvantage relating to rural isolation, low socioeconomic status, or

were Aborigines.

Willsher, M. (1995).

Talking early childhood: a profile of services and programs for young

Aboriginal children living on remote communities in the N.T. Batchelor,

NT: Batchelor college.
A community-based Aboriginal early childhood project.

McGill, G. (1993).

An Australian Aboriginal community's restraints on a school program:

a case study. Casuarina NT: Northern Territory University.
The academic achievement of Aboriginal children in the Northern Territory

of Australia is depressed. There is a body of research that suggests the

causes of the depressed level are to be found in the cultural and linguistic

differences between Aboriginal society and the major Australian society.

This study complements that research by inquiring into the effectiveness

of school as a source of those academic skills when the school is within

a community of Aboriginal people.

Martin, R., S. Burrow,

et al. (1993). 1992 ATU National survey of public schools: highlights

report. South Melbourne, Vic :Australian Teachers Union (ATU).
The ninth national survey reports on: staffing and teaching conditions

including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander teachers and education

workers, integration of students with disabilities, and distance education,

open access and telematics.

Theses

Henry, M. E. (1987).

Rural schooling: An ethnology. (Thesis). Armidale, NSW University

of New England
Rural schooling has long been a focus of debate, but few attempts have

been made to understand the social and cultural dynamics which separate,

and to an extent exclude, rural students from educational and career success.

Those students who attain high levels of academic competence do so in

spite of, not because of rurality. This ethnology is an attempt to describe

and interpret the process at work and the product that regenerates inequity.

Conference

papers

Gilbert, R. (1995).

Improving the outcomes of girls who benefit least from schooling: a special

focus on rural and isolated girls. In Proceedings of the Promoting

Gender Equity Conference, Canberra, 22-24 February 1995 (pp.237- 244).

Canberra, ACT:. Department of Education and Training.
The construction of gender is the main theme of this paper. The author

examines the significance of education in rural and isolated areas. The

diversity of rural and isolated communities, their schools and the underlying

inequalities in educational opportunity, outcomes are pointed to in the

light of interaction with poverty, race, gender and class.

Cunnington, R. (1994).

English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

students. In Best practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

education: NLLIA celebrates the International Year of the World's Indigenous

Peoples: proceedings of the conference held in Canberra on 17-18 November

1993, (pp. 54-56). Deakin ACT: National Languages and Literacy Institute

of Australia.
State schools in far north Queensland's remote communities now have

an English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

students. This program was developed to help students communicate well

in standard Australian English without losing any facility in the language

or dialect in which they were raised. The program is context based. Teachers

are asked to devise life-like social contexts that will allow the students

to become personally involved and encourage them to talk, read and write

in English appropriate to the context and genre.

Brady, W. (1993).

The education of Aboriginal women and girls in rural New South Wales.

In R C Petersen and G W Rodwell (Eds.) Essays in the history of rural

education in Australia and New Zealand (pp. 129-149). Darwin: William

Michael Press.
The paper uses Aboriginal women's voices in describing the education

of Aboriginal women and children in New South Wales and argues that historians

of education must learn to utilise the voices of Aboriginal people in

their research and writing.

Gosam, E. (1993).

Rural curriculum from an Aboriginal perspective. In National curriculum

implications for rural communities: papers and presentations from the

Curriculum Conference, May 14, 15 & 16, 1993.
This short paper (2p.) comments on issues relating to Aboriginal education,

curriculum development and rural education.

Herbert, J. (1990).

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders: Rural concerns. In M McShane and

J Walton (Eds.) 'Think tank' on research into rural education: proceedings

of the conference held by the Rural Education Research and Development

Centre at the Sheraton Breakwater Casino-Hotel, Townsville, June 10-14,

1990 (pp. 81-85). Townsville: James Cook University of North Queensland.

Rural Education Research and Development Centre.
This paper looks at educational research needs for rural education

in Australia. In particular, it examines this subject from the perspective

of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. It examines the needs of teachers,

students, parents and the community.

Journal

articles

Hatton, E. & O'Brien,

L. (1997). Discipline policy in a working class rural primary school:

Gender and ethnicity. Forum of Education, 52 (2), 70-79.
Many schools now maintain records of misdemeanours as perceived by

teachers, which give a school-wide perspective. Although they are obviously

selective; being open to gender, race, cultural and class biases, for

example, they can provide useful insights into how a school is functioning,

not least because it may reveal these very patterns of bias. This paper

provides an analysis of disciplinary records in Term 3, 1993 in Meiki,

a small, rural, working- class school in New South Wales.

Heitmeyer, D., P.

Nilan, et al. (1996). The feasibility of radical change in Aboriginal

education curricula and pedagogy. Curriculum Perspectives, 16 (1),

13-24.
The paper is concerned with pointing out the tension between two current

policy trends: the drive for economic rationalism and calls to place the

responsibility for5 aboriginal education completely in the hands of Aboriginal

people.

Higgins, A. H. (1994).

A background to rural education schooling in Australia. Journal of

Research in Rural Education v.10 n.1 p.48-57 Spring 94
A brief history of rural education in Australia is introduced by providing

a geographical description of the country and then by discussing the development

of education in remote areas. The history of rural education in Queensland

is examined to provide an illustration of developments elsewhere. The

impact the Commonwealth government has had on rural education in Australia

since the 1960s concludes the article.

Young, D. J. (1994).

A comparison of student performance in Western Australian schools: rural

and urban differences. Australian Educational Researcher, 21 (2),

87-105.
The purpose of the report is to compare the performance of students

in Western Australian government schools in the metropolitan and country

areas. Discusses the performance of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

children. Non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children showed consistently

higher performance. Concludes that it is not the location of the school

which influences performance but whether the student is Aboriginal and

Torres Strait Islander and whether the school is in a low socio-economic

area.

Dench, P. (1991).

Some computer strategies for achieving literacy in Australian languages:

the Yintarri project. Aboriginal Child at School 19 (2), 3-15.
The Yinatarri Project is a program which uses touch- sensitive boards

with microcomputers to assist in the development of literacy in both Wangkatja

and English. There are three computer strategies using touch-sensitive

boards: touch exploring, language-controlled software, and word processing.

These are introduced, and then there is a discussion on the use of touch-exploring

and word processing at Yintarri.

Pugh, D. (1992).

Outstation schools - a case history. Aboriginal Child at School, 20

(4), 21-26.
Provision of educational services to outstation schools , with particular

reference to the school community at Wurdeja, is the subject of this short

paper.

Non-english

speaking background children

Government

reports

Department of Employment,

Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA). (1996). Desert schools:

an investigation of English language and literacy among young Aboriginal

people in seven communities. Canberra: Department of Employment, Education,

Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA).
A three-volume report, including a literature review (Volume 3). This

National Children's Literacy Project was funded by the Department of Employment,

Education, Training and Youth Affairs under the 1993/4 Children's Literacy

National Projects and undertaken by the NLLIA South Australian Teaching

and Curriculum Centre, University of Adelaide and University of South

Australia. Principal researchers: J. Barnett, G. Kemelfield and P. Muhlhausler.

Cairney, T., Ruge,

J., Buchanan. J., Lowe, K. & Munsie, L. (1995). Developing partnerships:

The home, school and community interface. Canberra Australia. Dept

of Employment, Education and Training (DEET).
This report examines how the language and school literacy learning

of students from specific target groups is influenced by support within

their home and community environment as well as their parent, caregiver

or tutor's involvement in their literacy learning. The study sought to

consider initiatives situated within a variety of community contexts designed

to support school literacy learning through home support. These contexts

included schools, after school care, community libraries, homework centres,

and a variety of community centres. This project was supported by a grant

from the Department of Employment, Education and Training under the Australian

Language and Literacy Policy.

Cairney, T. H., Lowe,

K. & Sproats, E. (1994). Literacy in transition: an evaluation of literacy

practices in upper primary and junior secondary schools. Kingswood, NSW:

University of Western Sydney, Nepean
A three volume report Funded by the Department of Employment, Education

and Training as part of the Children's Literacy National Projects 1993-1994

under the Australian Language and Literacy Policy.

Martin. L. M. !994).

Equity and general performance indicators in higher education. Volume

1, Equity indicators. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Place of Publication: Canberra: Department of Employment, Education and

Training.
This paper seeks to define and evaluate a set of equity indicators.

In relation to rural and isolated students it proposed that further work

be done on alternative classification of geographic disadvantage developed

by Griffith.

Australia. Department

of Employment Education and Training (DEET). Schools and Curriculum Division.

Targeted Programs Branch. (1993). National strategy for equity in schooling:

Paper for consultations: Draft. Canberra: Department of Employment

Education and Training (DEET).
This report was developed by an Australian Education Council Schools

Working Party and deals with a range of policy matters including rural

students and matters affecting rural education.

Griffin, M. & Batten,

M. (1991). Equity in schools: an independent perspective: A study of

equity policies, programs and practices in nongovernment, nonsystemic

schools. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.
This project was funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment,

Education and Training. The study was conducted by the Australian Council

for Educational Research.

Australia. Department

of Employment Education and Training (DEET). (1990). A fair chance

for all. Canberra: Department of Employment Education and Training

(DEET).
A policy statement which describes objectives, goals and startegies

for people from socio-economically disadvantaged background, Aboriginal

and Torres Strait Islander people, women. People from non-English speaking

backgrounds, people with disabilities and people from rural and isolated

areas.

Monographs

Lamb, S. 1996). Completing

school in Australia: Trends in the 1990s. Melbourne: Australian Council

for Educational Research (ACER).
This is Research report n.1 / Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth

(Program). The report forms part of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian

Youth, a research program funded by the Commonwealth Department of Employment,

Education, Training and Youth Affairs.

Edith Cowan University.

School of Language Education. (1994). Literacy in its place: An investigation

of literacy practices in urban and rural communities. Churchlands

WA: Edith Cowan University. School of Language Education.
This two volume report was funded as a Children's Literacy National

Project under the Australian language and literacy policy administered

by the Commonwealth Department of Employment, Education and Training.

Project director: M P Breen.

Osuch, M. (Comp).

(1994). Families in Australia: a resource guide to the issues of the

90s. Port Melbourne Vic.: D W Thorpe.
This book is a survey of the bibliographic and reference material available

on families in Australia in 1994, the International Year of the Family.

It focuses on the issues that challenge governments and institutions no

less than individuals. Many of these issues relate to the way the family

has evolved over recent years. Issues covered are: divorce; fertility,

surrogacy and adoption; family violence; one parent families; rural families;

families from non English speaking backgrounds; homelessness; homosexuality;

and, employment. Chapter contents include bibliographies of recent books,

newspaper and journal articles, and addresses of key organisations. Also

included are biographical notes on prominent and influential figures,

a chronology of events and a glossary of terms.

Lee, P. (1993). Bilingual

education in remote Aboriginal schools: Developing first and second language

proficiency. Broome, WA: Catholic Education Office Kimberly Region.
Recommends measures to balance language instruction and develop proficiency

in both vernacualr languages and English, and procedures to set up support

networks for bilingual education in WA.

Conference

papers

Cunnington, R. (1994).

English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

students. In Best practice in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

education: NLLIA celebrates the International Year of the World's Indigenous

Peoples: proceedings of the conference held in Canberra on 17-18 November

1993 (pp. 54-56). Deakin ACT: National Languages and Literacy Institute

of Australia.
State schools in far north Queensland's remote communities now have

an English Language Arts Program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

students. This program was developed to help students communicate well

in standard Australian English without losing any facility in the language

or dialect in which they were raised. The program is context based. Teachers

are asked to devise life-like social contexts that will allow the students

to become personally involved and encourage them to talk, read and write

in English appropriate to the context and genre.

Elliott, M. (1993).

Non English-speaking background children in Wagga Wagga schools. In C.

Boylan and M. Alston (Eds.) Rural education issues: an Australian perspective

(Key papers n.3) (pp. 165-174). Wagga Wagga NSW: Charles Sturt University

- Riverina. Centre for Rural and Social Research; Darling Heights Qld:

Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA).
A survey of non-English speaking background children in Wagga Wagga

schools which recommends the need for further research, specialist and

support staff.

Yunupingu, M. (1990).

Language and power: The Yolngu rise to power at Yirrkala school. In C.

Walton and W. Eggington (Eds.) Cross cultural issues in educational

linguistics conference (1997, Batchelor College, NT) (pp. 3-6). Darwin:

NTU Press.

Last

updated 2 December 2001.