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Inquiry into Cybersafety for Senior Australians 2012

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Friday 14 December, 2012

Inquiry into Cybersafety for Senior Australians

Australian Human Rights Commission Submission to the Joint Select Committee on Cybersafety

January 2012


Table
of contents


1 Introduction

  1. The Australian Human Rights Commission makes this submission to the Joint
    Select Committee on Cybersafety in its inquiry into Cybersafety for Senior
    Australians.

  2. The Commission commends the Australian Parliament for initiating this
    inquiry. Cybersafety is a concern for many older Australians, affecting both
    Internet usage and confidence with the medium. We recommend that the Australian
    Government, along with State and Territory Governments, make ongoing efforts to
    ensure that older Australians are able to exercise their full participation
    rights in a society and economy that are increasingly digitalized.

  3. The Commission is pleased to be able to provide this submission to the
    Committee, particularly as the cybersafety inquiry is relevant to the
    Commission’s two strategic priorities:

    • Tackling violence, harassment and bullying; and

    • Building community understanding and respect for human rights.

  4. Internet fraud and spamming constitute cyber harassment. Cyber-harassment
    and bullying undermine human rights and threaten the rights of older Australians
    to live in dignity and security.

2 Recommendations

The Commission recommends:

Recommendation 1

That the Australian Government sponsor a research project into the fraud
victimisation of older Australians (as a distinct cohort) which investigates and
reports on:

  • the prevalence of Internet fraud amongst older Australians;
  • the types of scams and fraudulent activity affecting older Australians;
    and
  • any risk factors or predictors of scam vulnerability by age group.

Recommendation 2

That the Australian Government improve the effectiveness of the Broadband for
Seniors Initiative through:

  • a publicity campaign about Internet kiosks through seniors clubs, magazines,
    newspapers, radio and television; and
  • the development of programs about cybersafety including protection against
    malware, security settings for social networking sites, information about
    scamming and cybersafety self-assessment tools.

Recommendation 3

That the Australian Government conduct research into:

  • the geo-locations of free Internet sites with support services (for older
    Australians), with a view to adding Internet services in places with limited
    access; and
  • strategies for engaging older Australians in the online environment with
    particular focus on people who have limited or no Internet knowledge or
    experience.

Recommendation 4

That all government departments audit their online information for
user-friendliness and accessibility, with the view to improving accessibility
and extending information platforms beyond the online medium if required.

Recommendation 5

That the Australian Government conduct an action research trial of one-on-one
tutor programs along the lines of those provided in the UK and Ireland.
Evaluations of these trials should be used to contribute to research into
suitable methods for engaging older Internet beginners online.

3 Summary

  1. The Internet is the most powerful medium for modern communication and
    increasingly it is becoming a necessary tool for participation in society.
    People who are unable to use the Internet are at risk of reduced participation
    in critical aspects of modern living.

  2. Due to the speed with which the information technology revolution has
    occurred, many older Australians have found themselves on the wrong side of the
    digital divide. Older people, particularly those aged 65 and above, missed the
    information technology agenda that is now part of mainstream education. As a
    result, many older Australians lack the confidence to engage with the Internet
    at a high level.

  3. Evidence from the Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) indicates that
    older Australians have difficulties managing their online security and people
    over the age of 65 are more likely to be victims of online financial fraud than
    any other age group.[1]

  4. Current Internet training arrangements for older Australians are having some
    success, though current initiatives are not reaching all people in the older
    demographic. Evidence suggests that more targeted initiatives are required to
    engage segments of the aged population that do not respond to current programs
    and schemes.

  5. It is essential that governments take all possible steps to assist older
    people to take advantage of the Internet. The Internet is a tool that offers
    social and economic advantages to governments and individuals. With Internet
    access to medical services, online grocery shopping, online payment of bills and
    social networking possibilities, older Australians can potentially live
    autonomously in their homes for longer.

  6. The ability to access, receive and impart information is a human right.
    Article 19 of The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 states that
    everyone has the right to ‘seek, receive and impart information and ideas
    through any media regardless of
    frontiers’.[2]

  7. At the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society the United
    Nations proposed that ‘national e-strategies address the special
    requirements of older people, persons with disabilities, children, especially
    marginalized children and other disadvantaged and vulnerable groups, including
    by appropriate educational administrative and legislative measures to ensure
    their full inclusion in the Information
    Society’.[3]

4 Internet access, usage
and confidence amongst older Australians

  1. The Australian Government is committed to building the National Broadband
    Network (NBN) by 2020 with the intention of making Australia one of the world's
    leading digital economies. One of the government’s eight 'Digital Economy
    Goals' is to provide ‘improved health and aged
    care’.[4]

  2. Existing research on Internet connections and usage indicates that without
    new and effective initiatives, many older Australians will not have the skills,
    resources or confidence to take full advantage of the NBN.

  3. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), older people are
    less likely to have an Internet connection. Forty-seven percent of men and 39
    percent of women aged 65 to 74 had the Internet at home in
    2006.[5] This means that over half of
    men and women aged 65 and older had limited or no Internet access.

  4. At age 75 and above, Australians are much less likely to be connected to the
    internet. Twenty eight percent of men and 22 percent of women aged 75 and older
    had a home connection. Australians of all other age groups had home Internet
    rates between 74 and 81 percent.[6] If, and when, older Australians engage with online technology, it is likely to
    be with lesser skill and confidence in terms of cybersafety.

  5. Age is a significant factor in shaping peoples’ confidence in their
    level of Internet skill. In a study commissioned by the Australian
    Communications and Media Authority (ACMA), between 45 percent and 50 percent of
    those aged 65 years and over reported an Internet skill level of 'somewhat below
    average' or 'very much below
    average'.[7] The same study also
    showed that positive attitudes towards the Internet decrease with age.
    Forty-eight percent of 60 to 69 year olds enjoy going online while only 33
    percent of those 70 and over report the same. These figures are significantly
    lower than an enjoyment factor at above 75 percent of younger people aged
    between 14 and 19
    years.[8]

5 Patterns of fraud and
Internet scamming behaviour affecting older Australians

  1. Scamming is fraudulent activity whereby the victim pays advance fees in
    order to receive non-existent lottery winnings, a bogus inheritance or some
    other promised prize. Advance fee schemes include those in which the offender
    pretends to sell something that does not exist while taking money in advance, or
    provides a product of a lower standard than that which was offered for sale.

  2. According to an Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC), the Internet is
    the most common tool for scamming activity. A 2008 AIC survey of 919
    self-selected anonymous respondents found that ‘90 percent had received an
    invitation to a scam in the previous 12 months. Email was the most common method
    of delivery, with 80 percent of respondents receiving a scam invitation in this
    way’.[9]

  3. Other forms of Internet fraud include the use of malware to search for
    passwords and personal banking information or identity theft by harvesting
    information from social networking sites. These forms of fraud occur when the
    computer security settings are insufficient or when the Internet user does not
    utilise filters to limit personal information that is available on social
    networking sites.

  4. According to research from the Australian Communications and Media
    Authority, there is a direct correlation between one’s level of Internet
    usage and one’s knowledge of security options to prevent malware or
    identity fraud.[10] In other words,
    people with higher levels of Internet usage had more knowledge of security
    options.

  5. While the ACMA research did not provide age-specific data, it found that the
    respondent’s overall knowledge of Internet security was low. Twenty eight
    percent of respondents who used the Internet more than 8 times per week could
    not identify the security settings on social networking sites when
    requested.[11]

  6. Various studies have shown that there are few demographic factors that
    reliably distinguish fraud victims from non-victims except
    age.[12] A 2007-2008 AIC research
    project conducted in collaboration with the Victoria Police and the University
    of Melbourne found that people in different age groups are affected by different
    types of fraud.[13] People aged 65
    years or older were more likely to be a victim of advance fee scams, while
    people aged 45 to 54 years were more likely to be involved in dating scams and
    people aged 18 to 24 years were vulnerable to online transaction scams. Survey
    respondents in the 35 to 44 age cohort reported the lowest scam activity. The
    average loss for people who were victims of advance fee scams was
    $11,500.[14]

  7. The AIC reports that there is likely to be a ‘preponderance of older
    victims ... given that the most advanced fee victimisation took place via some
    form of internet communication and older people are the least likely to use
    these forms of communication’ ...and by implication, are the most
    vulnerable to fraud.[15]

  8. More targeted research is now required to illustrate the prevalence of
    scamming fraud amongst older age groups.

  9. Research from the United States indicates that there are some predictors or
    risk factors that can make people especially vulnerable to scams and fraud.
    According to the study, people who have experienced negative life events, such
    as medical problems, difficulties with finances, employment problems, or
    conflict with friends or neighbours are more likely to be victims of
    fraud.[16]

  10. There is also evidence to suggest that newer scams are more likely to have
    success with intended victims. In a 2008 survey, the AIC listed four types of
    scam activity and added an ‘other’ category, asking respondents to
    identify which scams had been ‘successful’ in their entrapment. The
    highest levels of positive responses to scamming were under the
    ‘other’ category. Therefore it can be surmised that scam activity is
    more likely to be successful when it is not widely known or it represents a
    newer and less well known type of
    scam.[17]

  11. Recommendation 1: The Commission recommends that the Australian
    Government sponsor a research project into the fraud victimisation of older
    Australians (as a distinct cohort) which investigates and reports
    on:

    • the prevalence of Internet fraud amongst older
      Australians;

    • the types of scams and fraudulent activity affecting older
      Australians; and

    • any risk factors or predictors of scam vulnerability by age group.

6 Effectiveness of
initiatives to engage older Australians in Internet usage

  1. The Australian Government has implemented some initiatives to encourage
    older Australians to become computer literate. In 2008, $15 million was
    committed to the Broadband for Seniors Initiative. This provides funding
    for 2,000 free Internet kiosks in community centres, retirement villages and
    seniors clubs across Australia. An additional $10.4 million over 4 years was
    committed in 2011 to support kiosks and assist older Australians to develop
    skills in technology.[18]

  2. The purpose of the kiosks is to assist people over 50 to use the Internet
    and send emails. Tutors and trainers are available to assist people to develop
    their computer and Internet skills. Kiosks are open to people who have Internet
    connections at home as well as for those who are not connected.

  3. Evidence suggests that many older Australian are not aware of the existence
    of the kiosks. A National Seniors Australia survey into the Internet usage found
    that only 17 percent of respondents were aware of Internet kiosks.
    ‘Respondents were more likely to be aware of U3A classes (48 percent) and
    classes offered by their local TAFE institution, library and/or community centre
    (62 percent)’.[19]

  4. Access to computers and Internet training is only the first part of ensuring
    cybersafety for older Australians. The second is to ensure that users are aware
    of potential cyber risks and can take action to maintain their security online.
    Almost 64 percent of respondents to the National Seniors Australia survey
    reported that security was an issue ‘preventing’ them from using the
    Internet or ‘improving’ their computer
    skills.[20]

  5. The Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC) has developed
    online materials to assist older Australians to understand potential cyber
    risks. The ASIC website contains advice about ways in which to stay one step
    ahead of scammers.[21] It is
    difficult to know the effectiveness and the reach of ASIC’s information.
    Obviously, older Australians who are not using the Internet are not going to
    have access to this information.

  6. The Australian Institute of Criminology recommends cybersafety initiatives
    that include ‘providing users ... with a simple
    ‘self-assessment’ for potential risks.’ The AIC argues that
    ‘victims are usually in contact with offenders over an extended period and
    their financial losses accumulate over time.’ The AIC argues that
    cybersafety measures should be able to ‘provide advice at several stages
    in [the scamming] process that may at least limit victims’
    losses’.[22]

  7. Any cybersafety initiatives should be delivered through the full range of
    media platforms. Online advice will only capture those who are Internet savvy.
    Those older Australians who are potentially most at risk of online fraud are new
    users who may not be aware of relevant and reputable cybersafety websites.

  8. Recommendation 2: The Commission recommends that the Australian
    Government improve the effectiveness of the Broadband for Seniors Initiative
    through:

    • a publicity campaign about Internet kiosks through seniors clubs,
      magazines, newspapers, radio and the TV; and

    • programs run from the kiosks about cybersafety including protection
      against malware, security settings for social networking sites, information
      about scamming and cybersafety self-assessment tools.

7 The human right to
engage in the online environment

  1. In 2010 and 2011, a number of European countries codified Internet rights
    into law. In 2010, Finland became the first country in the world to make
    broadband a legal right for every citizen. Finnish citizens have the right to
    access one megabyte per second broadband
    connection.[23] In 2011, Spanish
    citizens were given the legal right to buy broadband Internet of at least one
    megabyte per second at a regulated price regardless of where they
    live.[24]

  2. In 2011, the Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right
    to Freedom of Opinion and Expression recommended that States ensure that the
    Internet is ‘widely available, accessible and affordable to all segments
    of the population.’[25] Finland and Spain are not alone in ensuring Internet access for their citizens;
    Greece, France and Estonia have taken action to do the same.

  3. In addition to Internet access rights, the United Nations also recommends
    that States take action to build confidence and security in the use of the
    Internet. At the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society the United
    Nations recommended that States take action in ‘strengthening the trust
    framework, including information security and network security, authentication,
    privacy and consumer protection, [as] a prerequisite for the development of the
    Information Society and for building confidence among users of
    ICTs.’[26]

  4. The United Nations recommends that specific attention be given to vulnerable
    groups. At the World Summit on the Information Society it was recommended
    that States ‘promote research and development to facilitate accessibility
    of ICTs for all, including disadvantaged, marginalized and vulnerable
    groups.’[27]

  5. And further, that ‘Governments and other stakeholders should establish
    sustainable multi-purpose community public access points, providing affordable
    or free-of-charge access for their citizens to the various communication
    resources, notably the
    Internet.’[28]

  6. The Australian Government is providing a degree of Internet access and some
    cybersafety information to older Australians in line with the United Nations
    recommendations. However, more can be done to ensure that the existing
    strategies are more appropriately targeted to the most vulnerable groups. In
    order to meet its obligations to older Australians more completely, the
    Australian Government should undertake additional research, including an audit
    of the usage and the locations of sites where free Internet and training is
    available to older Australians.

  7. Recommendation 3: The Commission recommends that the Australian
    Government conduct research into:

    • the geo-locations of free Internet sites with support services (for
      older Australians), with a view to adding Internet services in places with
      limited access; and

    • strategies for engaging older Australians in the online environment
      with particular focus on people who have limited or no Internet knowledge or
      experience.

  8. Most essential government information is now provided online, sometimes
    exclusively. In order to ensure that public information is accessible to all
    Australian citizens, government departments should audit online materials to
    ensure they are user-friendly for new Internet users and that alternative forms
    of media are provided for people who do not have Internet access.

  9. Recommendation 4: The Commission recommends that all government
    departments audit their online information for user-friendliness and
    accessability, with the view to improving accessibility and extending
    information platforms beyond the online medium if required.

8 Initiatives to support
older people online in the UK and Ireland

  1. The UK and Ireland provide a range of training options for older people who
    want to learn basic Internet skills.

  2. In the UK, a broadband provider, BT, has developed measures to
    encourage younger people to support older relatives and friends to use the
    Internet. BT’s scheme entitled Internet Rangers, gives younger
    people a number of resources to help older people to become confident
    online.[29] A range of
    documents assist young tutors to take their older relatives through a
    step-by-step process on topics that range from ‘getting online’, to
    ‘accessing social networks’ and ‘shopping
    online’.[30]BT has now
    teamed up with One Economy in the US in order to do the same. BT is donating nearly £130,000 to the scheme through One
    Economy
    .[31]

  3. The UK also promotes Silver Surfers’ Day; an initiative that
    has been operating since 2002.[32] It is a national campaign aimed at promoting the use of digital technologies by
    older people. Each year, an independent organisation - Digital Unite -
    supports people and organisations all over the UK to open their doors and give
    local older people an opportunity to sample digital products. It is estimated
    that 150,000 older people have engaged with digital technologies in this
    way.[33]

  4. Age UK provides Internet training courses in 6,000 centres across the
    UK. Each centre provides access to computers and advice on using the Internet.
    People can find out about the courses through a free-phone number or by typing
    their postcode into the Age UK’s website to find a computer
    training project nearby.[34]

  5. Age Action in Ireland is a volunteer organisation that provides the Getting Started program. This program delivers training about computers,
    the Internet and mobile phones to people over the age of
    55.[35] In the last four years over
    6,000 people have been trained by 1,000 volunteer tutors. The goal of the
    program is to provide basic Internet skills to over 30,000 older people in
    Ireland.[36] The training gives
    participants one-on-one classes in libraries, community centres, family resource
    centres, corporate offices, and housing complexes for older people. Funding has
    come from a variety of sources – currently the main sponsors are private
    corporations, charitable foundations and Dublin City
    Council.[37] Beginner’s
    training materials include information on Internet
    security.[38]

  6. Recommendation 5: The Commission recommends that the Australian
    Government conduct an action research trial one-on-one tutor programs along the
    lines of those provided in the UK and Ireland. Evaluations of these trials
    should be used to contribute to research into suitable methods for engaging
    older Internet beginners online.

9 Conclusion

  1. This inquiry deals with issues of crucial
    significance for the economic and social wellbeing of older Australians; which
    ultimately means all Australians.

  2. Australia, along with all other advanced economies, must find immediate
    solutions to the challenges posed by the confluence of an ageing population and
    radical changes to the ways in which information is produced and communicated.
    The Internet and cyber technologies are almost completely replacing personal,
    paper based and phone based means of commercial and personal transactions. This
    trend will only continue.

  3. Australian citizens who lack competence or confidence in the use of the
    Internet will be excluded from access to essential services, commerce,
    information, entertainment and social relationships. Older Australians are at
    present the majority of those excluded.

  4. Overcoming this exclusion is an urgent task for Australia; and it is not one
    that can safely be put off to the future. Older Australians need targeted and
    effective opportunities to become confident Internet users. At the same time
    they must be informed about the hazards of Internet use, especially cyber fraud
    and cheating, and shown how to protect themselves against these hazards.

  5. The Commission makes this case because we see competence and security in
    Internet use as necessary to the exercise of our basic human
    rights.

[1] S Ross, R G Smith, Risk
factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends & issues in crime and
criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 December 2012).
[2]The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, art 19. At http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/ (viewed 4 January 2012).
[3] Declaration of Principles – Geneva 2003, World Summit on the Information
Society, Outcome Documents, Geneva 2003. At http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.html (viewed 4 January 2012).
[4] The
Australian Government, The National Digital Economy Strategy, 2011. At http://www.nbn.gov.au/the-vision/digitaleconomystrategy/ (viewed 4 January 2012).
[5] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Patterns of internet access in Australia,
2006
, 2008. At http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/DetailsPage/8146.0.55.0012006?OpenDocument (viewed 4 January 2012).
[6] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Patterns of internet access in Australia,
2006
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[7] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Australia in the Digital
Economy series: Report 1 Trust and Confidence
, 2009, p 31. At http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311655 (viewed 4 January 2012).
[8] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Australia in the Digital
Economy series: Report 1 Trust and Confidence
, 2009, p 11. At http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311655 (viewed 4 January 2012).
[9] R
Smith, C Budd, Consumer fraud in Australia: costs, rates and awareness of the
risks in 2008
, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2009. At http://www.aic.gov.au/en/publications/current%20series/tandi/381-400/tandi382/view%20paper.aspx (viewed January 2012).
[10] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Australia in the Digital
Economy series: Report 1 Trust and Confidence
, 2009, p 37. At http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311655 (viewed 4 January 2012).
[11] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Australia in the Digital
Economy series: Report 1 Trust and Confidence
, 2009, p 37. At http://www.acma.gov.au/WEB/STANDARD/pc=PC_311655 (viewed 4 January 2012).
[12] S
Ross, R G Smith, Risk factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends
& issues in crime and criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of
Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 January 2012).
[13] S
Ross, R G Smith, Risk factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends
& issues in crime and criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of
Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 January 2012).
[14] S
Ross, R G Smith, Risk factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends
& issues in crime and criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of
Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 January 2012).
[15] S
Ross, R G Smith, Risk factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends
& issues in crime and criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of
Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 January 2012).
[16] The
Consumer Fraud Research Group, Investor Fraud Study, NASD Investor
Education Foundation, May 2006. At http://www.finrafoundation.org/web/groups/foundation/@foundation/documents/foundation/p118422.pdf (viewed 5 January 2012).
[17] R Smith, C Budd, Consumer fraud in Australia: costs, rates and awareness of
the risks in 2008
, Australian Institute of Criminology, 2009. At http://www.aic.gov.au/en/publications/current%20series/tandi/381-400/tandi382/view%20paper.aspx (viewed 9 January 2012).
[18] Minister for Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs, Broadband for Seniors, Department of Families, Housing, Community
Services and Indigenous Affairs website. At http://www.facs.gov.au/sa/seniors/progserv/broadbandseniors/Pages/default.aspx (viewed 5 January 2012).
[19] National Seniors Australia, Older Australians and the Internet: Bridging the
Digital Divide
, September 2011, p.24. At http://www.nationalseniors.com.au/page/Driving_Change/Research/ (viewed 4 January 2012).
[20] National Seniors Australia, Older Australians and the Internet: Bridging the
Digital Divide
, September 2011, p.24. At http://www.nationalseniors.com.au/page/Driving_Change/Research/ (viewed 4 January 2012).
[21] Australian Securities and Investment Commission, Avoiding scams; Protecting
yourself from scams
, ASIC Money Smart website. At https://www.moneysmart.gov.au/scams/avoiding-scams (viewed 9 January 2011).
[22] S
Ross, R G Smith, Risk factors for advance fee fraud victimisation, Trends
& issues in crime and criminal justice no.420
, Australian Institute of
Criminology, 2011. At http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/current%20series/tandi/401-420/tandi420.aspx (viewed 4 January 2012).
[23] BBC
News, Finland makes broadband a 'legal right', BBC News Technology, 1
July 2010. At http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10461048 (viewed 9 January 2012).
[24] S
Morris, Spain Codifies the Right to Broadband, Reuters, November 2011. At http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2356014,00.asp (viewed 9 January 2012).
[25] F
La Rue, The right to freedom of opinion and expression, Report of the
Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of
Opinion and Expression to the Human Rights Council 17th session,
A/HRC/17/27 (2011), p 22. At http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/9811813.83132935.html (viewed 9 January 2012).
[26] Declaration of Principles – Geneva 2003, World Summit on the Information
Society, Outcome Documents, Geneva 2003. At http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.html (viewed 4 January 2012).
[27] Declaration of Principles – Geneva 2003, World Summit on the Information
Society, Outcome Documents, Geneva 2003. At http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.html (viewed 4 January 2012).
[28] Declaration of Principles – Geneva 2003, World Summit on the Information
Society, Outcome Documents, Geneva 2003. At http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/poa.html (viewed 4 January 2012).
[29] BT
Broadband Provider, BT Internet Rangers. At http://www.btplc.com/Responsiblebusiness/Supportingourcommunities/Digitalinclusion/BTinternetrangers/index.htm (viewed 11 January 2012).
[30] BT Broadband Provider, BT Internet Rangers. At http://www.btplc.com/Responsiblebusiness/Supportingourcommunities/Digitalinclusion/BTInternetRangers/resources/rangerstoolkit/index.html (viewed 11 January 2012).
[31] BT
Broadband Provider, BT Internet Rangers. At http://www.btplc.com/Responsiblebusiness/Supportingourcommunities/Digitalinclusion/BTinternetrangers/index.htm (viewed 11 January 2012).
[32] Digital Unite, Spring Online with Silver Surfer’s Day. At http://silversurfers.digitalunite.com/ (viewed 11 January 2012).
[33] Digital Unite, Spring Online with Silver Surfer’s Day. At http://silversurfers.digitalunite.com/ (viewed 11 January 2012).
[34] Age UK, Computer training Courses. At http://www.ageuk.org.uk/work-and-learning/technology-and-internet/learn-about-technology/computer-training-courses/ (viewed 11 January 2012).
[35] Ireland Age Action, Getting Started Programme. At http://www.ageaction.ie/getting-started-programme (viewed 12 January 2012).
[36] The Global Times, Ireland seeks to include elderly in internet society,
The Global Times online, 28 June 2011. At http://www.globaltimes.cn/NEWS/tabid/99/ID/663611/Ireland-seeks-to-include-elderly-in-internet-society.aspx (viewed 11 January 2012).
[37] Ireland Age Action, Getting Started Programme. At http://www.ageaction.ie/getting-started-programme (viewed 12 January 2012).
[38] Ireland Age Action, Getting Started Programme. At http://www.ageaction.ie/getting-started-programme (viewed 12 January 2012).