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Part 6: Towards a prevention framework

Encourage. Support. Act!

Bystander Approaches to Sexual Harassment in the Workplace



Part 6: Towards a
prevention framework

Bystander intervention is a potentially invaluable component of sexual
harassment prevention in the workforce. Ideally, bystander education applied to
workplace sexual harassment would teach people to interrupt incidents of sexual
harassment or the situations which lead to harassment, to challenge perpetrators
and potential perpetrators, to provide support to potential and actual victims
and to speak out against the social norms and inequalities supportive of sexual
harassment. However, the effectiveness of strategies is dependent on its
integration within a comprehensive framework of prevention and efforts to reduce
and prevent workplace sexual harassment will only make real progress if they
adopt the principles and strategies shown to constitute best practice in
violence prevention. Over four decades of research and evaluation regarding
efforts to prevent other forms of interpersonal violence have produced an
emerging consensus regarding the features of effective violence prevention.
Effective interventions have five generic features; all of which are likely to
have relevance for the development of bystander approaches to sexual
harassment.

First, effective violence prevention is comprehensive: it uses multiple
strategies to address the problem behaviour and does so in multiple settings
and at multiple levels.[259] Multi-level or ‘ecological’ interventions address a variety of
factors associated with sexual harassment at different levels of the social
order, from individuals’ relationships and communities to local contexts
and organisations to wider social forces. Experience from other fields suggests
that comprehensive interventions have a greater impact on attitudes, behaviours
and social norms[260] than
singular or isolated approaches. The section below canvasses a range of
bystander intervention strategies that can be considered
‘multi-level’, in that they are organised around primary, secondary
and tertiary themes and ‘comprehensive’ in that they are aimed at
individuals, organisations and society at large.

The second general principle of effective violence prevention which should be
applied in workplace sexual harassment is that frameworks should be built on a
sound understanding of both the problem – of the workings and causes of
sexual harassment itself – and of how it can be changed. In other words,
it incorporates both an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding
sexual harassment and a theory of
change.[261] More information is
needed to understand the motivations and actions of bystanders of sexual
harassment in different contexts and to guide theoretically appropriate and
targeted prevention programs in
organisations.[262] However, many
of the strategies outlined below draw on emerging forms of effective practice in
bystander intervention and research-based explorations of how best to increase
the likelihood that bystanders will notice sexual harassment, identify
intervention as appropriate, take responsibility for intervening and
act.[263]

The third general principle of effective prevention is that it involves
educational, communication and other strategies known to create change. For
example, strategies addressing sexual harassment should address the factors
known to be antecedents to or determinants of this behaviour, use effective
teaching methods and have sufficient duration and intensity to produce
change.[264] The strategies below
incorporate a number of educational, training and communication techniques
within organisations found to be effective in changing the behaviours and
attitudes of organisational actors. They include approaches which empower
individual bystanders, as well as legal and policy mechanisms which protect them
in taking action.

Fourth, effective prevention is contextualised. It is crafted with an
attention to context, both in terms of larger social and structural constraints
and with a concern for local beliefs and
norms.[265] The importance of
contextualising bystander interventions strategies in organisations cannot be
understated. Organisational contexts vary according to a myriad of factors
including, tasks, values, goals, structural and institutional arrangements,
locations and industry norms. This variability affects the fundamental
embededness of bystanders’ perceptions and actions which in turn, impacts
the effectiveness of specific interventions. Thus, while all bystander
approaches should be consistent with the general principles outlined here,
programs cannot be implemented as a one-size-fits-all but rather must be
flexible enough so they can be tailored to relevant factors in a particular
organisational setting.

The fifth and final general principle for effective prevention is that the
framework should involve a comprehensive process of impact evaluation that is
integrated into program design and
implementation.[266] While there
are very few studies which address the effectiveness of programs in relation to
sexual harassment specifically, there is a small but growing body of evidence in
the violence prevention literature demonstrating that bystander intervention
strategies can increase participants’ willingness to take action, their
sense of efficacy in doing so and their actual participation in prosocial
bystander behaviour. Evaluating the effectiveness of bystander intervention
strategies – by organisations and by researchers – will contribute
to knowledge of which strategies have a positive impact, versus those which are
ineffective or even cause harm.

6.1 Translating existing bystander approaches to sexual harassment in
organisations

There are significant challenges in identifying how bystander approaches must
be crafted for workplace sexual harassment, given that there are both
continuities and contrasts between this and other forms of violent, abusive or
anti-social behaviour or similar forms in non-workplace settings. A salient
example is cyberbullying. Whereas bystanders are often present online when this
form of bullying occurs, there may be fewer witnesses to sexual harassment,
which tends to be concealed because of perpetrators hiding their actions and
because of under-reporting.[267] However, while sexual harassment may be more hidden than cyberbullying, there is
strong evidence that bystanders do frequently observe, or at least hear about,
workplace sexual harassment, especially where it clusters in certain
workplaces.[268] This would
support the potential adoption of cyberbullying strategies which are relevant to
technology-facilitated sexual harassment in organisational settings.

Another contrast between sexual harassment and other violent behaviours is
that the situations in which the risk of workplace sexual harassment is
elevated may be different from those for other forms of violence and abuse such
as sexual assault. Some bystander intervention strategies focus on encouraging
bystanders’ preventative action in response to markers for high risk for
the violent behaviour in question, such as for the sexual assault of college
women by college men.[269] For
example, Burn’s situational model of sexual assault prevention identifies
the following high-risk markers: ‘women going to a private location with
male acquaintances, women left alone by their friends at a party or bar,
intoxication (of potential victim or perpetrator or both), [and] walking or
running alone in secluded locations or at
night’.[270] While some of
these situational elements are relevant for workplace sexual harassment, others
are not.

Another example of the potential differentiation of violence prevention in
interpersonal situations and workplace sexual harassment is that the risk
markers associated with sexual harassment, which should prompt bystanders’
interventions, may be distinct. For example, in relation to sexual assault
prevention, bystanders are encouraged to intervene when in the presence of a man
exhibiting ‘pre-rape behaviours’ which indicate an increased
likelihood of perpetration.[271] Such behaviours include various manifestations of sexual entitlement, power and
control, hostility and anger and acceptance of interpersonal
violence.[272] Sexual entitlement
may be evident in an individual ‘touching women with no regard for their
wishes, sexualising relationships that are not sexual, inappropriately intimate
conversation, sexual jokes at inappropriate times or places, or commenting on
women’s bodies, preference for impersonal as opposed to emotionally bonded
relationship context for sexuality and endorsement of the sexual double
standard’.[273]

While many of these behaviours are also correlates of an increased likelihood
of perpetrating sexual harassment, there has been little research on the
individual-level factors associated with men’s perpetration of sexual
harassment. While existing scholarship suggests that men who hold hostile sexist
attitudes, support rape myths and who are authoritarian are more likely to
perpetrate sexual harassment[274],
the lack of strong evidence poses challenges for developing specific
recommendations for individual level interventions such as providing negative
feedback to harassers or directly intervening in an unfolding sexual harassment
event. Importantly however, it is clear that work and organisational
environments are at least as important as men’s individual orientations in
shaping the likelihood of harassment. An environment which is
‘permissive’ towards sexual harassment is a critical antecedent for
this behaviour, as various reviews
demonstrate.[275]

It is also important to consider how bystander intervention approaches which are focused on workplace sexual harassment specifically, can reckon with the constraints placed by workplaces themselves. As noted, individuals’ ability to intervene in sexually harassing behaviour and its consequences is structured and indeed constrained in powerful ways by the systems, dynamics and laws of organisations. It should also be noted that workplace environments may not be conducive for reporting sexual harassment, where reporting requires bystanders to make a judgment about what behaviour is offensive, which may be unclear (for example, many consensual relationships begin in the workplace). Notwithstanding these challenges, here are some preliminary suggestions, based on existing knowledge, for areas where bystander interventions may be useful. Consistent with the categorisation of bystander intervention strategies in violence prevention, strategies are structured according to when they occur; primary (before the problem starts), secondary (once the problem has begun) and tertiary (longer-term responses). Preventative and remedial strategies related to bystanders may contribute to cultures – in organisations and in society more generally – which acknowledge sexual harassment as a profound and damaging workplace injustice and demonstrate a high level of intolerance for such conduct.

6.2 Primary
prevention strategies: Training and education

The evidence presented on perceptual differences in how sexual harassment is
viewed by bystanders has a number of potentially important implications for
including bystander strategies in the development of organisational training and
education. Overall, this evidence suggests bystanders tend to recognise sexual
harassment as having occurred and by implication, are more likely to respond:
(a) if it occurs between a supervisor and subordinate rather than between
co-workers; (b) when there was no previous relationship between the parties; (c)
when the target responds assertively, indicating that the behaviour is
unwelcome, rather than if they respond passively or acquiesce; and (d) when the
behaviours are severe. Taking these factors into account and considering how
bystanders may be enlisted to help prevent and respond to workplace sexual
harassment, it would seem important that training be designed to lower the
threshold of recognition of sexual harassment and that examples be used which
clarify the ambiguity associated with how sexual harassment is defined. This
would include challenging certain myths associated with sexual harassment, for
example, that perpetrators are always more senior than the target, that men
cannot be harassed by other men, or that women fabricate or exaggerate the
problem.[276]

Designing the specific content of training and education which includes
bystander strategies may usefully adopt some of the lessons learned from
bystander interventions designed to address other injustices. As noted in Part 4
which addressed violence prevention for example, bystanders can be mobilised and
encouraged to intervene not only while the conduct is occurring, but also in the
wide range of behaviours which sustain such events. In the context of the
workplace, these behaviours may include sexist and harassment-supportive jokes
and comments or behaviours which denigrate certain groups, such as women, gay
men or lesbians, or others who do not conform to stereotypically masculine
norms. However, as well as addressing sustaining behaviours, the possibility of
‘high involvement’ intervention behaviours could also be included in
training content, including confronting the harasser or publicly encouraging the
target to report the
harassment.[277] Importantly
however, the potential risks to bystanders of these high-involvement
interventions, especially retaliation by the accused person, would also need to
be communicated.

Other content that may be incorporated in sexual harassment workplace
training in relation to bystanders is strategies to build skills in behaving as
active bystanders (improving self-efficacy), facilitating the formation of
groups of individuals who act as peer-based educators and mentors such as those
evident in workplace health and safety strategies and public commitments to
speak up and act in relation to workplace
injustices.[278] In a similar way
to strategies recommended to prevent cyberbullying, bystander approaches for
sexual harassment that is perpetrated on-line or via other technologies, may
include instructions to never contribute to harassment or gossip about others on
social networking sites or via email and never to forward messages or pictures
that may be offensive or
upsetting.[279]

The importance of workplace education and training to prevent sexual
harassment is no more evident than in studies which suggest that it has an
effect on organisational cultures over and above the impact of individual
training. That is, widespread training in a workplace is associated with a
greater recognition of sexual harassment amongst all employees, regardless of
whether individual training has been
undertaken.[280] Work on bystander
approaches in violence prevention would suggest that those who witness sexual
harassment subsequent to being educated about it can challenge the attitudes and
norms, behaviours, institutional environments and power inequalities which feed
into violence in all its forms, including sexual harassment. The potential for
comprehensively delivered training to both raise awareness of sexual harassment
(creating a culture of awareness) and prevent it occurring means that
organisations should ensure that education is delivered to all employees –
at all sites and across all hierarchical levels – and not just to targeted
groups or those who volunteer to attend.

Effective workplace education must also address the fundamental links between
sexual harassment and wider inequalities, for example by interrogating the
constructions of gender and sexuality in a particular organisational context.
These constructions inform men’s and women’s differing perceptions
of sexual harassment[281] and help
explain the way gendered forms of power manifest in
organisations.[282] Studies of
whistle blowing are instructive in this sense in that they suggest that
‘moral agency’ must be developed in the organisation, by orienting
and training employees about what the organisation considers wrongful and what
to do if wrongdoing is observed. While the development of appropriate workplace
training in all organisations should incorporate discussions of the theoretical
underpinnings of sexual harassment (power, gender inequality and so on), in some
male-dominated workplaces in particular, training may need to also explicitly
address behaviours associated with sexual bravado and posturing and incorporate
elements which challenge the sanctioning of the denigration of feminine
behaviours where it
exists.[283]

A rather perplexing finding in the sexual harassment literature is that
observers tend to place a disproportionate amount of focus on the target of the
violence and their responses, in deciding whether sexual harassment occurred.
Passive target responses normalise and lower the moral intensity of conduct that
may constitute sexual harassment. This implies a need for training which
instructs parties (particularly those in grievance handling roles) to place
greater emphasis on the behaviour of the alleged harasser compared to the way
the target reacted, since this is likely to reveal more information about
whether sexual harassment occurred.

Older research on bystander interventions in emergency situations highlights
the importance of making social responsibility norms salient in order to
encourage helping behaviours.[284] It is well accepted that men’s violence against women is sustained in part
by institutional and collective factors and it would therefore seem important
that frameworks of workplace training acknowledge that bystanders can be
mobilised as individuals, but also as a collective of workers who can help
prevent sexual harassment. Supporting this possibility is that co-workers know
one another and are likely to be, in most cases, higher in cohesiveness than
strangers in emergencies. Workplace training strategies that explicitly
acknowledge the idea that fellow employees should work as a collective or team
and ‘look out for one another’, may be effective in harnessing the
potential for pro-social bystander behaviours. This has been highlighted in the
workplace health and safety literature, where employees are encouraged and
trained to observe co-workers’ work practices and offer supportive
feedback for safe behaviours and corrective feedback for unsafe behaviours and
where they are held accountable for such observation and
feedback.[285] Fostering practices
which catch and correct co-workers’ errors may also have the added
advantage of countering conventional masculine scripts, thus translating into
less rigid, non-stereotyped views of women and consequently, the advancement of
gender equality in the
workplace.[286]

Modelling, through demonstrations in training, also appear promising in
raising the frequency and immediacy of interventions. This is because modeling
facilitates employee learning in how and when to take action and because
employees’ inhibitions toward intervention can be lowered by the role
model’s previous
behaviour.[287] The use of
modeling in the context of bystander approaches might include the use of video
recorded vignettes, or simply verbal descriptions (which are less
resource-intensive to develop), of scenarios where bystanders have effectively
assisted a target or safely intervened to prevent or stop sexual harassment.
Experience in violence prevention and other fields suggests that education
programs which produce behavioural change are those in which the focus is on
skills development and there is a clear ‘behavioural
message’.[288] Bystander
training therefore should include practice in the skills of bystander
intervention.

The primary prevention strategies canvassed here have focused on those
relevant to organisations. However, the persistence of workplace sexual
harassment as a damaging phenomenon – to individuals, workplaces and the
economy more broadly – suggests there may also be an opportunity for a
wider social marketing campaign on bystander approaches which is directed at
larger audiences. Violence prevention programs already developed for groups in
universities, schools, or other settings could also potentially address how
situational and behavioural aspects of the program may translate to the
workplace.

6.3 Secondary prevention strategies: Responding to claims of sexual
harassment

Having explored the desirable characteristics of education and training in
supporting bystanders to prevent and appropriately respond to sexual harassment,
this section addresses secondary prevention strategies, that is, after the
problem has occurred. The importance of organisational voice mechanisms and
grievance procedures feature prominently in this section.

As has been demonstrated in this paper, there is strong emerging evidence in
the management and whistle blowing literature of how organisations can design
grievance procedures or ‘voice systems’ to encourage bystander
reporting and respond and protect bystanders through the process. It is clear
that implementing effective grievance procedures offers organisations
significant protection because they enable targets and bystanders to report
misconduct internally rather than outside the organisation, thereby avoiding
legal proceedings.[289] Indeed,
both the sexual harassment and organisational justice literatures indicate that
there are significant costs to organisations of ignoring or minimising the
development of ‘effective voice climates’ which deal effectively
with complaints of sexual harassment.

Not surprisingly perhaps, many of the existing recommendations suggested for
organisations to prevent and appropriately respond to complaints of sexual
harassment by targets, would also appear to be important for encouraging
bystander intervention strategies. For example, organisational and management
studies suggest that enlisting bystanders to support or advocate on behalf of
sexual harassment targets relies heavily on voice systems which are
characterised by timely responses and investigations and an open and supportive
environment where employees – bystanders as well as targets – feel
safe to express their views and can expect management to take them into
account.[290]

The high frequency with which sexual harassment and non-sexualised incivility
co-occur[291] suggests that it is
important for organisations to acknowledge sexual harassment as a manifestation
of broader gender inequality and to implement organisation-wide efforts to
promote a safe, supportive and inclusive environment for women. In work
environments which are systemically male-dominated and privileged (eg mining,
police work, manufacturing), some studies have suggested that it is important to
provide explicitly articulated opportunities for women to collectively and
democratically participate in order to challenge prevailing regimes of control
and strive for a more inclusive
environment.[292] This might
include involving women in the development of organisational complaints
procedures and other organisational processes which directly affect them. These
representative forms of participation, which involve worker input being
channeled through formal structures with elected or appointed spokespersons,
have demonstrated effectiveness in the workplace health and safety realm because
they place concerns within an industrial relations context and can be linked to
statutory measures and collective
agreements.[293]

Studies of whistle blowing further suggest that legalistic responses within
organisations, rather than laws themselves, are needed to successfully encourage
and protect bystanders in preventing sexual harassment and other unethical
workplace practices. An important first step in the process of protecting
bystanders who report sexual harassment on another individual’s behalf is
for senior management to clearly understand what constitutes wrongdoing and
injustice – under the law and with respect to the organisation’s own
policies – but also from the perspective of societal standards and the
penalties they may suffer if they allow the conduct to
continue.[294] Within the context
of secondary prevention, an important management strategy for encouraging
bystanders to report is to create a workplace environment that positively
endorses reporting of sexual harassment. This is akin to a number of
evidence-based principles in the workplace health and safety literature, such as
offering rewards for process activities including coaching safe work behaviours,
rather than only rewarding outcomes such as accident or injury
rates.[295] Also important in
encouraging whistle blowing is for organisations to provide multiple
communication channels so that employees can choose to report to someone with
whom they are comfortable[296] or
who has a lesser direct stake in their everyday work. In larger organisations,
this might include nominating sexual harassment contact officers in different
areas of the organisation so that targets and bystanders can refer the problem
to someone other than their line manager and outside their work team.

The whistle blower literature provides some further important lessons for
protecting bystanders from victimisation or retaliation when they report sexual
harassment. As outlined in Part 3, legalistic strategies include providing
immunity from legal action and making it an offence to take detrimental action
against a person who has made a disclosure, while organisations should attempt
to keep the whistle blower’s identity anonymous by excluding them as a
subject of the investigation and imposing a duty on the recipient (eg manager,
sexual harassment officer) not to reveal the discloser’s
identity.[297]

Another important component of secondary prevention is the application of
appropriate sanctions or penalties when sexual harassment has been found to
occur. This demonstrates to employees that organisations can ‘walk the
talk’ and deliver distributive justice, which has a profound impact on the
likelihood of further reporting. Indeed, some of the most significant reasons
for under-reporting sexual harassment are beliefs that the harasser will not
receive any penalty and low expectations by employees that justice will be
done.[298]

Implementing grievance procedures which are perceived to be fair (by both
targets and their supporters) is important not only for employees, but also for
mitigating risks to organisations. This is because perceptions of fairness may
influence the likelihood of legal redress being sought outside the
organisation.[299] There is some
evidence, for example, that observers perceive the use of external investigators
in sexual harassment cases to be more fair and less biased than the use of
internal investigators.[300] However, such studies are relatively rare and there remains much to be learned
about the types of voice mechanisms employees deem to be fair in relation to
sexual harassment specifically. However, it seems clear that the potential for
bystanders to report sexual harassment is enhanced where organisations
proactively seek an understanding of justice perceptions of their employees,
especially in developing and modifying grievance and investigative procedures
around sexual harassment.

Developing well-functioning grievance procedures appears to be especially
important in certain contexts, such as when targets are employed in precarious
and lower level positions and thus are not part of a high status group which is
more likely to receive support from bystanders and in a recessionary economy
where the potential costs associated with expressing voice are higher than usual
for all bystanders.[301] Thus,
when developing, implementing and monitoring complaints procedures,
organisations need to take account of how they can be used effectively by
employees at all levels of the organisational hierarchy and regardless of their
contractual arrangements or the financial position of the company at any
particular time.

6.4 Tertiary prevention: Dealing with the consequences of sexual
harassment

Bystander approaches may be effective in not only preventing sexual
harassment from occurring in the first place and in designing effective
procedures to respond to the problem once it has occurred, but also in dealing
with the longer term impacts of the problem on those affected. In violence
prevention, activities focus on responding to, or treating the problem,
minimising the impact of violence, restoring health and safety and preventing
further victimisation and
perpetration.[302] In workplace
sexual harassment however, knowledge of the longer term impacts on targets and
bystanders is much less reliable and consequently, tertiary prevention
strategies are, at best, tentative.

As outlined in Part 1, the negative impacts on targets of sexual harassment
and also bystanders, can be significant, including negative psychological,
health and job-related
consequences.[303] While knowledge
of the impacts of sexual harassment generally focus on those that occur in the
weeks and months following sexual harassment rather than those in the longer
term, these more immediate impacts suggest that bystander approaches may be
relevant in two different ways in regards to tertiary prevention. First, given
bystanders often experience detriments that parallel those of direct
targets[304], they may require
similar longer-term supports following the resolution of a sexual harassment
incident or complaint procedure. Such supports may include ongoing external
counselling, which should be resourced by the organisation and /or other
workplace-level interventions such as job-training opportunities. Second,
bystanders may be enlisted to support targets, such as by facilitating a
‘buddy system’ which may buffer targets from potential negative,
longer-term effects.

Other bystander-related strategies which could be considered as tertiary are
the ongoing monitoring, evaluation and subsequent modification of organisational
processes designed to address sexual harassment (including many of the primary
and secondary prevention strategies outlined here). Consistent with the
principles for designing the programs themselves, impact evaluations should be
underpinned by an appropriate theoretical framework and be considered from
multiple levels and with the specific workplace context in mind. While
sophisticated studies involving experimental designs and standardised measures
of impact are probably more the preserve of researchers than organisations, it
is important for organisations to continually monitor programs or strategies
designed to mobilise bystanders and assess how they may be constantly improved.

Table 1 provides a preliminary framework for the development of bystander
interventions in workplace sexual harassment, summarising the principles for
developing bystander interventions and the primary, secondary and tertiary
prevention strategies outlined above.

Table 1. Principles and strategies for developing and implementing
bystander approaches to sexual harassment.

Principles informing the strategies Strategies
Primary Prevention – training
Secondary Prevention – reporting and
investigating
Tertiary Prevention – supporting
bystanders
Design comprehensive programs, using multiple strategies, settings and
levels
Design training to:

  • increase recognition of sexual harassment
  • include content which addresses different forms of bystander involvement
    and challenge myths of sexual harassment
  • address the links between sexual harassment and other forms of gender
    inequalities
  • define sexual harassment by focusing on the behavior rather than the
    response

Make social responsibility norms evident in the
workplace; acknowledge bystanders can be individuals or respond
collectively

Use modeling in training modules to demonstrate how bystanders can
assist

Deliver training to all employees

Respond and investigate complaints in a timely way

Allow employees to participate in the design of complaints procedures

Establish what constitutes sexual harassment in the organisation

Create a workplace environment that allows for reporting sexual
harassment

Give management credit for taking action to encourage reporting

Preserve the anonymity of bystanders who disclose

Address the risks of victimisation to the bystander

Implement appropriate penalties for harassment when it occurs

Provide multiple communication channels for bystanders and targets

Acknowledge that some organisational actors are more vulnerable

Support bystanders who may have experienced the negative impacts of sexual
harassment

Enlist the support of bystanders to assist targets of sexual harassment in
the longer term

Implement ongoing monitoring and evaluation of bystander strategies

Develop an appropriate theoretical framework
Incorporate educational, communication and other change strategies
Locate bystander approaches in the relevant context
Include impact evaluation in the bystander approach

[259] E Casey and T Lindhorst,
‘Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of
sexual assault: prevention in peer and community contexts’ (2009) 10(2) Trauma, Violence & Abuse, pp. 91-114; M Nation, C Crusto, A
Wandersman, K Kumpfer, D Seybolt, E Morrissey-Kane and K Davino, ‘What
works in prevention: principles of effective prevention programs’ (2003)
58(6/7) American Psychologist, pp. 449-56.

[260] E Casey and T Lindhorst,
‘Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of
sexual assault: prevention in peer and community contexts’ (2009) 10(2) Trauma, Violence & Abuse, pp. 91-114.

[261] M Flood, L Fergus and M
Heenan, Respectful Relationships Education: Violence prevention and
respectful relationships education in Victorian secondary schools,
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, State of Victoria,
(2009), pp. 33-35.

[262] V L Banyard,
‘Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: the case of
interpersonal violence’ (2008) 23 Violence and Victims, pp.
83-97.

[263] S M Burn, ’A
Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander
Intervention’ (2008) 60(11-12) Sex Roles, pp. 779-792.

[264] M Flood, L Fergus and M
Heenan, Respectful Relationships Education: Violence prevention and
respectful relationships education in Victorian secondary schools,
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, State of Victoria,
(2009), pp. 35-54.

[265] E Casey and T Lindhorst,
‘Toward a multi-level, ecological approach to the primary prevention of
sexual assault: prevention in peer and community contexts’ (2009) 10(2) Trauma, Violence & Abuse, pp. 91-114; M Flood, L Fergus and M Heenan, Respectful Relationships Education: Violence prevention and respectful
relationships education in Victorian secondary schools,
Department of
Education and Early Childhood Development, State of Victoria, (2009), pp.
55-56.

[266] M Flood, L Fergus and M
Heenan, Respectful Relationships Education: Violence prevention and
respectful relationships education in Victorian secondary schools,
Department of Education and Early Childhood Development, State of Victoria,
(2009), pp. 57-58.

[267] Australian Human Rights
Commission, Sexual Harassment: Serious Business. Results of the 2008 Sexual
Harassment National Telephone Survey
(2008); G Scott and B Martin,
‘Tactics against sexual harassment: the role of backfire’ (2006)
7(4) Journal of International Women’s Studies, pp. 111-125.

[268] Australian Human Rights
Commission, Sexual Harassment: Serious Business. Results of the 2008 Sexual
Harassment National Telephone Survey
(2008); K Low, P Radhakrishnan, K
Schneider and J Rounds, ‘The experiences of bystanders of workplace ethnic
harassment’ (2007) 37(10) Journal of Applied Social Psychology, pp.
2261-2297.

[269] S M Burn, ’A
Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander
Intervention’ (2008) 60(11-12) Sex Roles, p. 780.

[270] S M Burn, ’A
Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander
Intervention’ (2008) 60(11-12) Sex Roles, p. 780.

[271] S M Burn, ’A
Situational Model of Sexual Assault Prevention through Bystander
Intervention’ (2008) 60(11-12) Sex Roles, p. 780.

[272] P Rozee and M Koss,
‘Rape: A Century of Resistance’ (2001) 25(4) Psychology of Women
Quarterly
, p. 299.

[273] P Rozee and M Koss, as
above.

[274] J Begany and M Milburn,
‘Psychological predictors of sexual harassment: authoritarianism, hostile
sexism and rape myths’ (2002) 3(2) Psychology of Men and
Masculinity
, pp. 119-126.

[275] A Pina, T Gannon and B
Saunders, ‘An overview of the literature on sexual harassment:
perpetrator, theory and treatment issues’ (2009) 14(2) Aggression and
Violent Behavior
, pp. 126-138; L Fitzgerald, F Drasgow, C Hulin, M Gelfand
and V Magley, ‘Antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment in
organizations: a test of an integrated model’ (1997) 82(4) Journal of
Applied Psychology
, pp. 578-589.

[276] K Lonsway, L Cortina and
V Magley, ‘Sexual harassment mythology: definition, conceptualization and
measurement’ (2008) 58 Sex Roles, pp. 599-615.

[277] L Bowes-Sperry and A
O’Leary-Kelly, ‘To act or not to act: the dilemma faced by sexual
harassment observers’ (2005) 30 Academy of Management Review, pp.
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