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Social Justice Report 2006: Appendix 4: Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People

Social Justice Report 2006

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  • Appendix 4: Second International Decade
    of the World’s Indigenous People

    This Appendix reproduces
    materials approved by the United Nations General Assembly when establishing the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People. It also
    extracts and briefly comments on the main provisions of the Program of Action
    for the Second Decade.

    Background

    The United Nations General Assembly adopted
    resolution A/RES/59/174 on 22 December 2004 to establish a Second International
    Decade for the World’s Indigenous People. The Second Decade commenced on 1
    January 2005 and will conclude in 2015.

    The Second Decade provides a focal point for all UN activity on indigenous
    peoples over the next ten years. It is also designed to guide and foster action
    by governments, civil society organisations and others to ensure that ‘all
    indigenous people everywhere enjoy full human rights and real and measurable
    improvements in their living
    conditions.’[1]

    The Second Decade calls for governments and all members of the international
    community to work in partnership with indigenous peoples. It follows on from the
    International Year for the World’s Indigenous People in 1994 and the First
    International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1995-2004) which had as
    its theme ‘Indigenous people: partnership in action.’

    The main objective of the First Decade was to strengthen international
    cooperation to address the problems faced by indigenous people in such areas as
    human rights, the environment, development, education and health. These areas
    are the subject of ongoing attention in the Second Decade, as well as the new
    are of ‘culture’.

    The fact that the General Assembly agreed to establish a Second Decade is an
    acknowledgement by the leadership of the international community that several of
    the key objectives of the First Decade had not been achieved. Principal among
    these was the failure to finalise and adopt the Declaration on the Rights of
    Indigenous Peoples prior to the conclusion of the First Decade. The
    establishment of a Second Decade is also an acknowledgement that renewed
    international commitment and action on the ground are needed to address
    indigenous peoples’ ongoing marginalisation and disadvantage.

    Establishment of the Second Decade

    The General Assembly prefaced its resolution to establish the Second Decade
    with an acknowledgement of the unique status of the world’s indigenous
    peoples, and a reiteration of the various commitments the international
    community has made since 1993 to protect and promote their human rights.
    Although the General Assembly acknowledged the achievements of the First Decade
    for Indigenous People, the following extract from the preamble to the resolution
    indicates that it remains concerned by the persistent economic and social
    disadvantage of indigenous peoples in many parts of the world:

    The General Assembly,

    Bearing in mind that, in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of
    Action, the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights recognized the inherent
    dignity and the unique contribution of indigenous people to the development and
    plurality of society and strongly reaffirmed the commitment of the international
    community to their economic, social and cultural well-being and their enjoyment
    of the fruits of sustainable development,

    Reaffirming that States should, in accordance with international law,
    take concerted positive steps to ensure respect for all human rights and
    fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, on the basis of equality and
    non-discrimination, and recognizing the value and diversity of their distinctive
    identities, cultures and social organization, ...

    Welcoming all achievements during the Decade, in particular the
    establishment of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, and the contributions
    to the realization of the goals of the Decade made by the Permanent Forum, the
    Working Group on Indigenous Populations of the Sub-Commission on the Promotion
    and Protection of Human Rights and the Special Rapporteur of the Commission on
    Human Rights on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of
    indigenous people, such as the comprehensive work programme that the Permanent
    Forum is carrying out for the benefit of indigenous peoples in the area of
    culture, education, environment, health, human rights and social and economic
    development,

    Taking due note of Commission on Human Rights resolution 2004/62 if 21
    April 2004, in which the Commission expressed its deep concern about the
    precarious economic and social situation that indigenous people continue to
    endure in many parts of the world in comparison to the overall population and
    the persistence of grave violations of their human rights, and reaffirmed the
    urgent need to recognize, promote and protect more efficiently their rights and
    freedoms
    , [emphasis added]

    Recalling that in its resolution 49/214 of 23 December 1994 it
    expressly put on record its expectations of achieving the adoption of a
    declaration on indigenous rights within the International Decade and that in its
    resolution 50/157 of 21 December 1995 it decided that the adoption by the
    General Assembly of a declaration on the rights of indigenous people constituted
    a major objective of the Decade, and noting the progress made in the recent
    rounds of negotiations in the open-ended inter-sessional working group on the
    Commission on Human Rights charged with elaborating a draft declaration on the
    rights of indigenous people established pursuant to Commission resolution
    1995/32 of 3 March 1995.[2]

    The resolution establishing the Second Decade put in place a range of
    measures to assist in the coordination and financing of the Decade. These
    include:

    • A Voluntary Fund to which governments, non-government organisations, private
      institutions and others can contribute money to fund projects during the Second
      Decade.[3]
    • The position of Coordinator of the Second Decade, which is to be held by a
      senior representative of the UN
      bureaucracy.[4] The role of the
      Coordinator will be critical in facilitating cooperation between governments,
      the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Indigenous Peoples’
      Organisations and other relevant bodies within the UN system working with
      indigenous peoples.[5]
    • An appeal to all relevant organisations within the UN system to take special
      account of the needs of indigenous peoples in their budgeting and programming,
      and to explore ways to make their existing programs and resources more
      beneficial for indigenous
      peoples.[6]

    Other important tasks and challenges addressed in the resolution
    include:

    • The finalisation and adoption of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous
      Peoples is set as an urgent priority for governments and other
      parties.[7]
    • Governments are to ensure that their activities and objectives for the
      Second Decade are planned and implemented with the ‘full consultation and
      collaboration of indigenous
      people’.[8]

    Key paragraphs of the resolution include:

    The General Assembly:

    3. Requests the Secretary-General to appoint the
    Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs as the Coordinator for
    the Second Decade;

    4. Requests the Coordinator to fulfil the mandate in full cooperation
    and consultation with Governments, the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and
    other relevant bodies and mechanisms of the United Nations system, the Office of
    the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, other members of the
    Inter-Agency Support Group on Indigenous Issues and indigenous and
    non-governmental organizations;

    5. Invites Governments to ensure that activities and objectives for
    the Second Decade are planned and implemented on the basis of full consultation
    and collaboration with indigenous people;

    6. Appeals to the specialized agencies, regional commissions,
    financial and development institutions and other relevant organizations of the
    United Nations system to increase their efforts to take special account of the
    needs of indigenous people in their budgeting and in their programming;

    7. Requests the Secretary-General to establish a voluntary fund for
    the Second Decade, which to all juridical purposes and effects should be set up
    and should discharge its functions as a successor to the already existing
    voluntary fund established for the present Decade pursuant to General Assembly
    resolutions 48/163, 49/214 and 50/157;

    9. Urges Governments, intergovernmental and non-governmental
    organizations to contribute to the voluntary fund for the Second Decade
    established by the Secretary-General, and invites indigenous organizations and
    private institutions and individuals to do likewise;

    10. Urges the competent United Nations organs, programmes and
    specialized agencies, in planning activities for the Second Decade, to examine
    how existing programmes and resources might be utilized to benefit indigenous
    people more effectively, including through the exploration of ways in which
    indigenous perspectives and activities can be included or enhanced;

    12. Urges all parties involved in the process of negotiation to do
    their utmost to carry out successfully the mandate of the open-ended
    intersessional working group established by the Commission on Human Rights in
    its resolution 1995/323 and to present for adoption as soon as possible a final
    draft United Nations declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples;

    13. Requests the Secretary-General to give all the assistance
    necessary to ensure the success of the Second Decade;

    Program of Action for the Second Decade

    On 21 November 2005, the Program of Action for the Second Decade was approved
    by the UN General Assembly following extensive
    consultations.[9] The Program of
    Action contains the mottos, goal, objectives, areas of action, and the
    mechanisms to promote and monitor the Second Decade of the World’s
    Indigenous People.

    The Introduction to the Program of Action sets out the themes or mottos
    for the Second Decade
    , which are:

    • Partnership for further action.
    • Human rights in practice.
    • Engagement for action.
    • Agenda for life.[10]

    The Introduction also establishes that the work of the Permanent
    Forum on Indigenous Peoples, particularly in relation to the implementation of
    the Millennium Development Goals, should inform the Plan of Action. The relevant
    paragraph reads:

    4. The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues has been a valuable political
    meeting point for States, indigenous organizations, the United Nations system
    and other intergovernmental organizations and has successfully acted as a
    catalyst for change. The direction and outcomes of the Permanent Forum should
    therefore be fully taken into account in a plan of action for the Second Decade.
    In addition, given the fact that the time frame for the implementation of the
    Millennium Development Goals is the same as that of the Second Decade, the Goals
    and the Forum’s focus and recommendations on them should also inform the
    plan of action.[11]

    The goal of the Second Decade is the:

    ... further strengthening of international cooperation for the solution of
    problems faced by indigenous people in such areas as culture, education, health,
    human rights, the environment and social and economic development, by means of
    action-orientated programmes and specific projects, increased technical
    assistance and relevant standard- setting
    activities.[12]

    The five key objectives of the Second Decade set out how the
    General Assembly intends that the goal will be met. This section of the Program
    of Action also invites governments, the United Nations system,
    inter-governmental organisations, indigenous peoples’ organizations,
    non-governmental organizations, the private sector and other parts of civil
    society to implement the objectives through their
    work.[13] The objectives are as
    follows:

    (i) Promoting non-discrimination and inclusion of indigenous peoples in the
    design, implementation and evaluation of international, regional and national
    processes regarding laws, policies, resources, programmes and projects;

    (ii) Promoting full and effective participation of indigenous peoples in
    decisions which directly or indirectly affect their lifestyles, traditional
    lands and territories, their cultural integrity as indigenous peoples with
    collective rights or any other aspect of their lives, considering the principle
    of free, prior and informed consent;

    (iii) Redefining development policies that depart from a vision of equity and
    that are culturally appropriate, including respect for the cultural and
    linguistic diversity of indigenous peoples;

    (iv) Adopting targeted policies, programmes, projects and budgets for the
    development of indigenous peoples, including concrete benchmarks, and particular
    emphasis on indigenous women, children and youth;

    (v) Developing strong monitoring mechanisms and enhancing accountability at
    the international, regional and particularly the national level, regarding the
    implementation of legal, policy and operational frameworks for the protection of
    indigenous peoples and the improvement of their lives. [14]

    The areas for action in the Program of Action are those
    identified in the goal of the Second Decade, namely culture, education, health,
    human rights, the environment, and social and economic development.

    This section of the Program of Action identifies clear responsibility for
    cooperation and action on the part of the United Nations system, other
    intergovernmental organisations, governments (States), indigenous peoples’
    organisations and indigenous peoples themselves. An extract of this section is
    provided below:

    1. Culture

    11. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system, other intergovernmental organizations and indigenous peoples.

    (a) International level

    12. It is recommended that culture should be integrated as a prerequisite and
    a basis for development project design in order to build “development with
    identity”, respecting people’s way of life and building sustainable
    human development.

    13. All relevant actors are urged to implement the Action Plan of the United
    Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Universal
    Declaration on Cultural Diversity during the Second International Decade.

    14. All relevant actors are encouraged to work towards the adoption and
    ratification by States of the draft convention on the protection of the
    diversity of cultural contents and artistic expressions to ensure the right of
    indigenous peoples to create and disseminate in a fair environment their
    cultural goods and services, and their traditional expressions, so that they
    might benefit from them in the future.

    15. It is recommended that UNESCO should intensify efforts to promote and
    support the recovery of indigenous heritage and the oral tradition and ancient
    writings of indigenous peoples with a view to recognizing them as heritage of
    humanity under the framework of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the
    World Cultural and Natural Heritage and the Convention for the Safeguarding of
    the Intangible Cultural Heritage.

    16. UNESCO is urged to establish mechanisms to enable indigenous peoples to
    participate effectively in its work relating to them, such as the programmes on
    endangered languages, education, literacy, nomination of indigenous sites in the
    World Heritage List and other programmes relevant to indigenous peoples.

    17. The ongoing discussion of the World Intellectual Property Organization
    Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual Property and Genetic Resources,
    Traditional Knowledge and Folklore should have as its clear objective the
    continued development of mechanisms, systems and tools that adequately protect
    the genetic resources, traditional knowledge and expressions of culture of
    indigenous peoples at the national, regional and international levels.

    (b) National level

    18. States are urged to develop policies and focused programmes to reverse
    ethnocentric perceptions of non-indigenous peoples of indigenous cultures, which
    are often stereotyped, folklorized and biased. The role of mass media is very
    important in that process.

    19. It is recommended that programmes and initiatives relating to indigenous
    cultures should follow the principle of free, prior and informed consent of
    indigenous peoples. Particular caution should be exercised when elaborating
    tourism and national park projects in indigenous territories.

    20. Relevant agencies and bodies of the United Nations system should consider
    developing international guidelines on free, prior and informed consent
    regarding traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples.

    21. National measures are strongly encouraged to facilitate public
    communication between indigenous peoples and the rest of the population
    including access to mass media.

    22. It is recommended that information and communication technology should be
    used to support and encourage cultural diversity and to preserve and promote
    indigenous languages and the distinct identities and traditional knowledge of
    indigenous peoples in a manner that they determine best advances their
    goals.

    23. Indigenous peoples are invited to strengthen measures to preserve,
    develop and promote their languages, histories and cultures through their oral
    histories and in printed and audio-visual forms.

    2. Education

    24. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system and other intergovernmental organizations.

    (a) International level

    25. It is recommended that global efforts should be made to raise awareness
    of the importance of mother tongue and bilingual education especially at the
    primary and early secondary level for effective learning and long-term
    successful education.

    26. The international community should continue to promote bilingual and
    cross-cultural education programmes for indigenous and non-indigenous peoples,
    schools for girls and women’s literacy programmes and share good practices
    in the field.

    27. UNESCO is urged to identify universities, primary and secondary schools
    and teaching and research centres for indigenous peoples that fulfil
    satisfactorily their programmes and projects and grant them recognition and
    technical and financial support promoting their work.

    (b) National level

    28. It is recommended that emphasis on quality education in the mother
    tongue, bilingual and intercultural education that is sensitive to indigenous
    holistic world views, languages, traditional knowledge and other aspects of
    their cultures should be central in all programmes of education for indigenous
    peoples.

    29. In the framework of the Millennium Development Goals and the UNESCO Dakar
    Framework for Action on Education for All, States should take legislative
    measures to eliminate national policies and practices that create further
    difficulties for indigenous children to enjoy their right to education.

    30. It is recommended that there should be increased awareness of the
    importance of integrating indigenous learning systems and knowledge in formal
    and informal education for indigenous peoples. That includes teaching and
    learning the history, traditions, culture, rights, spirituality and world views
    of indigenous peoples and their ways of life. Special emphasis should be placed
    on the education of teachers at all levels to become more indigenous-sensitive,
    and indigenous schools should be set up in areas where indigenous peoples are
    the majority. States should recognize teaching centres in terms of labour and
    academic conditions in order to facilitate interchanges and cooperation among
    them.

    31. All relevant actors are urged to provide focused programmes with
    increased state budgetary allocations, including scholarships to support the
    enrolment of indigenous persons in teacher-training programmes, colleges and
    relevant higher educational institutions. Special emphasis should be placed on
    the education of indigenous teachers at all levels.

    32. In order for nomadic or semi-nomadic indigenous peoples to fully enjoy
    their right to education, culturally appropriate practices of education
    including the use of technologies should be established.

    (c) Organizations of indigenous peoples

    33. Organizations of indigenous peoples should consider: establishing and
    supporting indigenous schools and university-level institutions and
    collaborating with the relevant United Nations agencies; participating in the
    revision of school texts and the contents of programmes of study in order to
    eliminate discriminatory content and promote the development of indigenous
    cultures and, where appropriate, indigenous languages and scripts; and
    developing indigenous curricula for schools and research institutions.

    34. Organizations of indigenous peoples should create documentation centres,
    archives, in situ museums and schools of living traditions concerning indigenous
    peoples, their cultures, laws, beliefs and values, with material that could be
    used to inform and educate non-indigenous people on those matters.

    3. Health

    35. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system and other intergovernmental organizations.

    36. Access to comprehensive, community-based and culturally appropriate
    healthcare services, health education, adequate nutrition and housing should be
    ensured without discrimination. Measures to guarantee the health of indigenous
    peoples must be seen as a collective and holistic issue involving all members of
    the communities and including physical, social, mental, environmental and
    spiritual dimensions.

    37. All relevant actors are urged to support and implement collection and
    disaggregation of data on indigenous peoples with special emphasis on indigenous
    children, including infants, based on criteria relating to ethnicity, cultural
    and tribal affiliation and language. In addition, the dissemination of
    information on such data to the widest possible extent among indigenous peoples,
    regional and local authorities and other stakeholders should be ensured.

    38. It is recommended that regional and local consultations with indigenous
    peoples should be undertaken to appropriately integrate indigenous healers,
    indigenous concepts and understandings of health, wellness, healing, illness,
    disease, sexuality and birthing and traditional health systems into policies,
    guidelines, programmes and projects carried out during the Decade. Training and
    employment of qualified indigenous persons, including indigenous women, to
    design, administer, manage and evaluate their own health-care programmes must be
    taken into consideration.

    39. All relevant actors are urged to guarantee indigenous peoples’
    access, especially women’s access, to information relating to their
    medical treatment and to secure their free, prior and informed consent to
    medical treatment. Health research in or affecting indigenous communities must
    also respect their free, prior and informed consent which may implicate their
    intellectual property rights. Researchers, whether academic or private sector,
    must practise transparency regarding the potential economic benefits of any
    research or knowledge of indigenous healing practices.

    40. It is recommended that national monitoring mechanisms for indigenous
    communities to report abuses and neglect of the health system to national health
    authorities should be set up and the legal framework to effectively address
    those issues should be put in place. The fundamental human rights and critical
    needs in the area of health of indigenous children, youth and women are of the
    highest priority and that fact should be recognized and promoted through the
    formation of focal points or committees within each agency, organization or
    institution, including the full and effective participation of indigenous women
    and youth in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of
    initiatives.

    41. All relevant actors are urged to adopt targeted policies, programmes,
    projects and budgets for indigenous health problems in strong partnership with
    indigenous peoples in the following areas:

    1. HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis;
    2. Cultural practices which have negative impacts on health, including female
      genital mutilation, child marriages, violence against women, youth and children
      and alcoholism;
    3. Environmental degradation that adversely affects the health of indigenous
      peoples, including use of indigenous peoples’ lands for military testing,
      toxic by-product storage, nuclear and industrial exploitation and contamination
      of water and other natural resources;
    4. Health problems connected to forced relocation, armed conflicts,
    5. migration, trafficking and prostitution.

    4. Human rights

    42. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system and other intergovernmental organizations.

    (a) International level

    43. The finalization of negotiations on the draft declaration on the rights
    of indigenous peoples and its adoption early in the Decade should be a priority
    for the Second Decade. The draft shall not fall below existing international
    standards. Consideration may be given to innovative methods for the Commission
    on Human Rights Working Group on the United Nations draft declaration on the
    rights of indigenous people.

    44. It is recommended that there should be an increased and systematic focus
    on the implementation of existing international standards and policies of
    relevance to indigenous and tribal peoples.

    45. It is recommended that a global mechanism should be established to
    monitor the situation of indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation and in danger
    of extinction.

    46. International human rights treaty monitoring bodies and thematic and
    country-specific United Nations human rights mechanisms including the Special
    Rapporteur on the situation of human rights and fundamental freedoms of
    indigenous people are invited to continue to or start to specifically address
    indigenous peoples within their mandates throughout the Second Decade and share
    their reports with the Permanent Forum.

    47. It is recommended that programmes of education on the human rights of
    indigenous peoples should be developed and strengthened, including the current
    Indigenous Fellowship Programme of the Office of the United Nations High
    Commissioner for Human Rights, in indigenous languages where possible, including
    relevant training materials that are culturally appropriate, and should advocate
    against stereotypes and ethnic stigmatization.

    (c) National level

    50. Governments are urged to launch a review of national legislations to
    eliminate possible discriminatory provisions with the full and effective
    participation of indigenous experts.

    51. It is recommended that a special protection framework for indigenous
    peoples in voluntary isolation should be adopted and that Governments should
    establish special policies for ensuring the protection and rights of indigenous
    peoples with small populations and at risk of extinction.

    52. It is recommended that Governments should consider integrating
    traditional systems of justice into national legislations in conformity with
    international human rights law and international standards of justice.

    53. Advocacy for good governance by local and national administrations in
    areas populated by indigenous peoples is strongly encouraged.

    55. It is recommended that Governments should support and broaden the mandate
    of existing national machineries for the promotion of equal rights and
    prevention of discrimination, so that they will include promotion of the rights
    of indigenous peoples. Legal centres could be established by national
    authorities to inform and assist indigenous people regarding national and
    international legislation on human rights and fundamental freedoms, to carry out
    activities for protecting those rights and freedoms and to promote the
    capacity-building and participation of indigenous peoples.

    56. Governments are encouraged to further develop national legislation for
    the protection and promotion of human rights, including means of monitoring and
    guaranteeing those rights. Consideration should be given by States that have not
    yet done so to ratification of International Labour Organization Convention 169
    concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries, and the
    strengthening of mechanisms to monitor the implementation of the Convention.
    Where it is not already the case, it is recommended that national constitutions
    should recognize the existence of indigenous peoples and make explicit reference
    to them, where relevant.

    5. The environment

    57. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system and other intergovernmental organizations.

    58. It is recommended that the indigenous-related elements of the programme
    of work of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cartagena Protocol on
    Biosafety, especially on fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use
    of genetic resources, should be considered as part of the Programme of Action
    for the Decade, and in particular sustainable development and the protection of
    traditional knowledge should remain urgent priorities regarding the
    world’s indigenous peoples.

    59. Climate change and other stressors, in particular pollutants and the
    ecologically unsustainable use of natural resources, present a range of
    challenges for the health, culture and well-being of indigenous peoples, and
    pose risks to the species and ecosystems that those communities and cultures
    rely on. It is therefore essential to:

    1. Work closely with indigenous and local communities to help them to adapt
      to and manage the environmental, economic and social impacts of climate change
      and other stressors;
    2. Implement, as appropriate, sustainable and adaptive management
      strategies for ecosystems, making use of local and indigenous knowledge and
      indigenous peoples’ full and effective participation, and review nature
      conservation and land and resource-use policies and programmes;
    3. Stress the importance of promoting procedures for integrating indigenous
      and local knowledge into scientific studies, and partnerships among indigenous
      peoples, local communities and scientists in defining and conducting research
      and monitoring associated with climate change and other stressors.

    60. It is recommended that programmes to strengthen synergies
    between indigenous knowledge and science should be developed to empower
    indigenous peoples in processes of biodiversity governance and assessment of
    impacts on territories, as part of the inter-sectoral project of UNESCO on Local
    and Indigenous Knowledge Systems.

    61. The Akwe: Kon Guidelines for the conduct of cultural, environmental and
    social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or
    which are likely to impact on, sacred sites on lands and waters traditionally
    occupied and used by indigenous and local communities, must be taken into
    consideration and implemented in programmes and projects carried out during
    the Decade.

    62. It is recommended that programmes and projects planned on traditional
    indigenous territories or otherwise affecting the situation of indigenous
    peoples should foresee and respect the full and meaningful participation of
    indigenous peoples.

    63. It is urged that indigenous persons who promote the protection of the
    environment should not be persecuted or harassed for their activities.

    64. All relevant actors are encouraged to develop and implement programmes
    and projects for natural disaster management at the national and community
    levels with indigenous peoples’ full and meaningful participation.

    6. Social and economic development

    65. The following recommendations are made for States, the United Nations
    system, other intergovernmental organizations and indigenous peoples.

    (a) International level

    66. It is recommended that agencies, funds and programmes of the United
    Nations system, including their governing bodies, should adopt programmes of
    activities premised on the human rights-based approach to development for the
    Second International Decade in their own fields of competence, in close
    cooperation with indigenous peoples.

    67. All relevant actors are urged to establish, develop and promote strong
    partnerships among indigenous peoples, governments and intergovernmental bodies,
    agencies, funds, non-governmental organizations and the private sector during
    the Second Decade.

    68. Indigenous peoples are encouraged to further develop sustainable
    practices, including subsistence practices and strategies of self reliance.
    Cooperation among indigenous peoples and other organizations is highly
    encouraged.

    69. Strong grass-roots collaboration should be fostered by United Nations
    agencies, funds and programmes with local organizations of indigenous peoples in
    identifying and prioritizing programmes, projects and other activities. The
    United Nations system is encouraged to provide special support to initiatives of
    indigenous peoples to improve the sustainability of their practices and assist
    them when they seek alternatives for long-term perspectives of economic activity
    and community well-being.

    70. It is recommended that governments and international agencies should
    establish policies that recognize environmentally sustainable pastoralism,
    hunting, gathering and shifting cultivation as legitimate activities, as in the
    case of farming and other types of land use.

    71. Before the end of the Decade, development plans that directly or
    indirectly impact indigenous peoples should systematically include a provision
    on free, prior and informed consent.

    72. It is recommended that the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should
    oversee research on the socio-economic conditions of indigenous peoples, in
    collaboration with specialized agencies, indigenous organizations and
    Governments, which should result in a report on the state of the world’s
    indigenous peoples. An additional series of publications should be created to
    inform policymakers and the world at large on indigenous issues.

    73. It is recommended that programmes should be particularly focused on
    indigenous women and girls and, specifically, on their full and effective
    participation and the issue of violence against women and trafficking.
    Governments and the United Nations system and other intergovernmental
    organizations are urged to integrate a gender perspective in all programmes
    relevant to indigenous peoples, including indigenous cultural perspectives, and
    work towards the implementation of the recommendations on indigenous women,
    children and youth made by the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.

    74. States and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and
    foundations are encouraged to contribute to the three United Nations Voluntary
    Funds established by the General Assembly to support the travel of indigenous
    representatives to United Nations meetings, the work of the Permanent Forum on
    Indigenous Issues and the programme of the Second International Decade of the
    World’s Indigenous People.

    75. It is recommended that there should be increased provision of technical
    and financial resources to build the capacity of indigenous peoples, government
    institutions and the United Nations system to address indigenous issues. Such
    provision should include the establishment of funds for international
    cooperation and funds for indigenous peoples in United Nations country offices.
    A process should be developed to facilitate the channelling of funds directly to
    indigenous peoples’ organizations at the community level.

    76. It is recommended that the Indigenous Fellowship Programme managed by the
    secretariat of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues to place indigenous
    fellows at United Nations agencies, funds and programmes should be funded and
    launched. Governments and international institutions are urged to contribute to
    the Fellowship Programme through the United Nations Voluntary Fund for the
    Decade.

    77. In capacity-building programmes and projects addressed to indigenous
    peoples, special attention should be paid to leadership training for indigenous
    women.

    78. The United Nations system is urged to make efforts to hire indigenous
    individuals as United Nations staff members and experts in various fields.

    79. It is recommended that consideration should be given to the establishment
    of a United Nations Indigenous Peoples’ Fund, with adequate resources to
    support projects and programmes, jointly with indigenous peoples, in the areas
    of development, environment, education, culture, health and human rights.

    80. The implementation of the Millennium Declaration, including the
    Millennium Development Goals, should be monitored by developing and effectively
    using environmental, social and human rights impact assessment methods and
    indicators that are sensitive to the realities of indigenous peoples.

    81. It is recommended that quantifiable targets and benchmarks should be set
    during the Decade by States and the United Nations system to directly improve
    the lives of indigenous peoples and that such targets and benchmarks should be
    regularly monitored every two years, or half way through and at the end of the
    Decade.

    82. All relevant actors are urged to further strengthen the Permanent Forum
    on Indigenous Issues and its secretariat through financial, human and technical
    resources. Additional human and technical resources will also ensure that the
    activities of the Second Decade can be effectively facilitated and overseen by
    the Permanent Forum.

    83. Appropriate strategic partnership of the United Nations system and the
    private sector may be explored, involving the joint development of projects with
    indigenous peoples and communities. The development of a strategy is encouraged
    for cooperation between the United Nations system and the private sector as
    regards indigenous peoples. Indigenous small and medium business should be given
    high priority for that effort. Pilot programmes in that area are encouraged.

    84. It is recommended that the United Nations system and other
    intergovernmental organizations should facilitate, nurture, strengthen and
    multiply collaboration at the international, regional and national levels among
    indigenous and tribal peoples and other rural and urban communities on the other
    hand.

    (b) Regional level

    85. It is recommended that the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should
    hold regional meetings on indigenous issues with existing regional organizations
    with a view to strengthening cooperation and coordination. The Permanent Forum
    should support regional initiatives of United Nations agencies, funds and
    programmes, such as the Indigenous Peoples Programme of the United Nations
    Development Programme in Asia.

    88. In an effort to systematize and build capacity, regional focal points on
    indigenous issues should be designated in all agencies, funds and programmes
    with regional offices that are mandated to follow up on the implementation of
    recommendations of the Permanent Forum and the objectives of the Second Decade.
    The Regional Programme on Indigenous Peoples in Asia of the United Nations
    Development Programme should be further strengthened, and its other Regional
    Bureaux should also develop such programmes.

    (c) National level

    89. It is recommended that specific policies should be considered at the
    national level for employment creation for indigenous peoples and for
    facilitating their access to financing, credit and the creation of small and
    medium businesses. Capacity-building measures by Governments are strongly
    encouraged to increase the access of indigenous persons to civil service,
    including through scholarships.

    90. High priority is urged to systematize data collection and disaggregation
    and dissemination initiatives. Technical resources should be provided to
    national information systems to produce reliable statistics, so that the
    specific linguistic and cultural characteristics of indigenous peoples can be
    demonstrated. The work and studies of the Economic Commission for Latin America
    and the Caribbean can be drawn upon as an example in developing more coherent
    systems for data collection with respect to indigenous peoples at the national
    level.

    The final section of the Program of Action sets out the promotional and
    monitoring mechanisms
    that are to be used to ensure that beneficial outcomes
    for indigenous peoples are achieved. These are presented below in
    full.

    The General Assembly recognises the need for indigenous peoples to take an
    active role at the local, national, regional and international levels in
    overseeing and reporting on the effectiveness of measures to implement the
    Program of Action. This is in addition to the requirement that indigenous
    peoples are ‘full and effective’ participants in all implementation
    activities.[15]

    To assist in tracking and measuring progress, all parties implementing
    activities under the Plan of Action are expected to adopt ‘concrete
    activities with specific benchmarks.’ In addition to reporting at the
    national level, the General Assembly will receive annual reports from the
    Coordinator, as well as undertaking its own mid-term and full-term assessment of
    the Second Decade.

    91. Governments; United Nations agencies, funds and programmes; other
    intergovernmental organizations; indigenous and other non-governmental
    organizations; and civil society actors are invited to adopt plans of concrete
    activities with specific benchmarks to implement the goal, objectives and
    programme of action of the Second Decade. Gender should be mainstreamed in such
    activities.

    92. The Coordinator of the Second Decade should collect relevant information
    and submit annual reports to the General Assembly on progress made in the
    achievement of the goal, objectives and programme of action of the Second
    Decade.

    93. The General Assembly should hold a mid-term and end-term assessment of
    the Second Decade to review progress.

    94. Key to the implementation of the programme of action is the full and
    effective participation of indigenous peoples. It is also suggested that
    indigenous organizations should establish a council of indigenous peoples in
    each region or subregion at the international level with a mandate of evaluating
    on an ongoing basis the degree to which the goal, objectives and programme of
    action of the Second Decade are being realized.

    95. It is recommended that indigenous organizations should establish
    committees at the national and local level to monitor the implementation of the
    programme of action.

    96. It is recommended that there should be a designation of focal points at
    the country level among United Nations agencies, funds and programmes with
    country offices, with a mandate to follow up on the implementation of
    recommendations of the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and the goal,
    objectives and programme of action of the Second Decade.

    97. It is recommended that Governments should establish national focal points
    on indigenous issues and on the Second Decade and intensify coordination and
    communication at the national level among relevant ministries, agencies and
    local authorities.

    98. It is recommended that tripartite committees should be established at the
    country level composed of governments, indigenous peoples and United Nations
    country offices to promote implementation of the objectives of the Second
    Decade. The Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues should consider the initiative
    to call for meetings at which indigenous peoples, governments and the United
    Nations country teams can exchange experiences with national institutions at the
    country level, while taking into account lessons learned from previous
    experiences in establishing and running such national committees. Civil society
    organizations may be invited to join that effort with the agreement of all three
    parties.

    99. The United Nations system, including the Department of Public Information
    and the Inter-Agency Support Group for the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues,
    States, indigenous organizations, other non-governmental organizations, academia
    and the media are invited to adopt measures to create broad awareness and
    mobilization regarding the Second Decade and its goal, objectives and programme
    of action.[16]


    Endnotes

    [1]United Nations,
    General Assembly, Programme of Action for the Second International Decade of
    the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para3.

    [2]United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the
    General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174.
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    22
    December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174, preamble, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [3]United
    Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the General Assembly [on the
    report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174. Second International Decade of
    the World’s Indigenous People,
    22 December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174,
    para7-9, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [4]Under-Secretary-General for the UN Department of Economic and
    Social Affairs, Mr. José Antonio Ocampo, was appointed Coordinator for
    the Second Decade in accordance with paragraph 3 of the resolution establishing
    the Second Decade.

    [5]United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the
    General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174.
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    22
    December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174, para4, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [6]United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the
    General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174.
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    22
    December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174, paras6 and 10, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [7]United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the
    General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174.
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    22
    December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174, para12, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [8]United Nations General Assembly, Resolution adopted by the
    General Assembly [on the report of the Third Committee (A/59/500)] 59/174.
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    22
    December 2004, UN Doc A/RES/59/174, para5, available online at: http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N04/486/70/PDF/N0448670.pdf?OpenElement.

    [9] This included an open invitation to all Governments as well as Indigenous
    organisations to submit proposals for inclusion in the Program in February 2005;
    discussion on this theme at the Permanent Forum in May 2005 and the Working
    Group on Indigenous Populations in July 2005; the circulation of a draft program
    for further comment to all governments as well as Indigenous organisations in
    May 2005; the revision of this following the Permanent Forum meeting in May 2005
    and posting of a revised program on the internet, with further comments sought
    from all governments as well as Indigenous organisations. See further: United
    Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the Second International
    Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc A/60/270, 18 August
    2005, paras5-7.

    [10]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para8.

    [11]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para4.

    [12]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para.1.

    [13]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para10.

    [14]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para.9.

    [15]United Nations, General Assembly, Programme of Action for the
    Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
    , UN Doc
    A/60/270, 18 August 2005,
    para94.

    [16]United Nations General Assembly, Draft programme of action for
    the Second International Decade of the World’s Indigenous People,
    26
    August 2005, UN Doc A/60/270/Add.1, paras 91-99, available online at http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/464/96/PDF/N0546496.pdf?OpenElement,
    accessed 14 March 2007.